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HIV / AIDS Jorge, Maria, Karina, Haidy, and Jennifer.

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Presentation on theme: "HIV / AIDS Jorge, Maria, Karina, Haidy, and Jennifer."— Presentation transcript:

1 HIV / AIDS Jorge, Maria, Karina, Haidy, and Jennifer

2 What is HIV? ● Microscopic virus ● Early 1980s: San Francisco, New York, and Los Angeles

3 Immune System Breakdown ● Leukocytes o White blood cells that defend body ● Antigens o Large molecules that are capable of stimulating the immune system ( Red Flag ) ● Helper T Cells o “read” antigen and begin directing the immune system’s response

4 AIDS ● CDC established definition of AIDS o must have positive blood count indicating presence of HIV antibodies o T-cell count lower than 200 o cervical cancer/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) o Pulmonary Tuberculosis o Recurrent bacterial pneumonia

5 C onditions Associated with AIDS ● Opportunistic infections ● Cancers ● Clinical Conditions ● Other Infections

6 Opportunistic Infections ● Certain types of Tuberculosis ● A parasitic disease of the brain or nervous system ● Certain types of Pneumonia o Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia

7 Cancers ● Cancer of the lymphatic System ● Invasive Cervical Cancer ● Kaposi’s Sarcoma

8 Clinical Conditions ● Wasting Syndrome ● AIDS Dementia

9 Other Infections ● Candidiasis (thrush) ● Fungal Infection o respitory system and Vagina ● Colds ● Flu ● intestinal Infection

10 Transmission “HIV is spread by sexual contact with an infected person, sharing drug injection needles and / or syringes with someone infected…” (CDC, 2007).

11 Modes of Transmission 1.injection drug use 2.sexual intercourse 3.kissing 4.sex toys 5.mother to child Fluid Exchange: blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, vaginal fluid, rectal fluid, breast milk Mucous membrane contact Open sores, abrasions, cuts

12 Modes of Transmission 1.Injection drug use blood-contaminated syringe reuse 2. Sexual intercourse Mucous membrane absorption Anal: rectal lining tear, damage, urethra entry Vaginal: vaginal lining tear, menstrual blood Oral: open sores, cut lips, in mouth ejaculation

13 Modes of Transmission 3. Kissing bleeding gums, mouth sores, tissue damage, cuts 4. Sex toys vaginal secretions on toys 5. Perinatal HIV transmission ¼ to ⅓ untreated mothers will infect baby child birth breast Milk placenta? NO!

14 Modes of Transmission Behavioral Factors: Unprotected sexual activities Numerous sexual partners Presence of other STIs

15 Symptoms Advanced HIV Infection: Oral anomalies Fevers Diarrhea / Weight loss Respiratory problems Vision impairment Skin rashes / itchiness Newly Infected: Asymptomatic period Flu like symptoms

16 Diagnosis AIDS is a medical diagnosis determined by a physician using the specific CDC criteria (CDC, 2007).

17 Stages of HIV Infection

18 Testing ●Who needs to get tested? ●risky behaviors Types of Testing 1.EIA (enzyme immunoassay) 2.Western Blot 3.Rapid Test 4.Home Testing Kits

19 EIA (enzyme immunoassay) Most common screening test HIV-antibody test If infected with HIV, the body produces antibodies to fight off the virus. The presence of these antibodies concludes a positive test. blood, saliva, urine Results within a couple of days-weeks Reliable If positive, followed up by a Western Blot test

20 Rapid Test Results in 20 mins Detects HIV antibodies through either blood or saliva Easy to use Accuracy similar to EIA tests Pricing ranges from $14-$26 FDA approved OraQuick Oral swab If positive, follow up with healthcare provider Western Blot → confirmation

21 Home Testing Kits Home Access HIV-1 Test System Licensed by the FDA in 1997 Procedure Prick finger Place blood on sample card Mail blood sample to designated lab Identification number

22 Antiretroviral Therapy ● Lowers amount of HIV in body ● Medications used to treat HIV ● Does not cure ● Taken everyday for the rest of the infected person’s life o Slows down the progress of HIV in the body → allows the immune system to repair what has been weaken

23 Antiretroviral Therapy ● Combination Therapy o Used to decrease the chance of drug resistance

24 Women and HIV They are vulnerable due to: ● vaginal lining which can tear easily ● mucous membranes that absorb the virus ● age influences likelihood of contracting HIV o younger females have immature cervixes ● urethra can lead virus to blood stream

25 Possibility of Creating a Family ● Women can still get pregnant if infected with HIV ● About 120, ,000 women in the U.S. have HIV ● 6,000-7,000 of them give birth annually

26 True or False? An HIV positive mother has greater than 25% chance of infecting her baby with HIV. FALSE

27 Expecting Mothers & HIV ● 25% chance IF HIV-positive mother is not being treated during pregnancy, labor, or delivery. ● BUT less than 2% IF mother takes preventative measures. ● Early detection and ART → transmission to infant is about 1%

28 Risk factors: Perinatal Transmission Smoking Substance abuse Vitamin A deficiency Malnutrition

29 Risk Factors: Perinatal Transmission (Cont.) STD infections Viral load of HIV Factors related to labor and childbirth breastfeeding

30 Preventing Perinatal Transmission Receiving treatment during and throughout pregnancy Cesarean sections reduce the risk Avoid breastfeeding Refrain from pre-chewing infant food Getting tested!!

31 A Mother’s Story

32 Mothers & Children Living With HIV Talk to your children Administer your child’s medication Support!

33 Living with HIV/AIDS Stay Healthy Do Tell Get Tested! Maintain Positive :)

34 References AIDS.Gov. (2013). Stages of HIV Infection. What are the Stages of HIV infection? Retrieved from:https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed- with-hiv-aids/hiv-in-your-body/stages-of-hiv/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2007). HIV/AIDS: HIV Basics. Retrieved from:http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/index.htmlhttp://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/index.html CDC - HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children - Pregnant Women, Gender, Risk. (n.d.). Retrieved from HRET -HIV | Considering the Costs | Considering the Costs. (n.d.). Retrieved from HIV and AIDS Treatment & Care | AVERT. (n.d.). Retrieved from HIV Testing | AVERT. (n.d.). Retrieved from Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV | AVERT. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.avert.org/prevention-mother-child- transmission-pmtct-hiv.htmhttp://www.avert.org/prevention-mother-child- transmission-pmtct-hiv.htm What Is Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)? | aidsinfonet.org | The AIDS InfoNet. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view/403


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