Presentation on theme: "HIV / AIDS Jorge, Maria, Karina, Haidy, and Jennifer."— Presentation transcript:
HIV / AIDS Jorge, Maria, Karina, Haidy, and Jennifer
What is HIV? ● Microscopic virus ● Early 1980s: San Francisco, New York, and Los Angeles
Immune System Breakdown ● Leukocytes o White blood cells that defend body ● Antigens o Large molecules that are capable of stimulating the immune system ( Red Flag ) ● Helper T Cells o “read” antigen and begin directing the immune system’s response
AIDS ● CDC established definition of AIDS o must have positive blood count indicating presence of HIV antibodies o T-cell count lower than 200 o cervical cancer/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) o Pulmonary Tuberculosis o Recurrent bacterial pneumonia
C onditions Associated with AIDS ● Opportunistic infections ● Cancers ● Clinical Conditions ● Other Infections
Opportunistic Infections ● Certain types of Tuberculosis ● A parasitic disease of the brain or nervous system ● Certain types of Pneumonia o Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia
Cancers ● Cancer of the lymphatic System ● Invasive Cervical Cancer ● Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Clinical Conditions ● Wasting Syndrome ● AIDS Dementia
Other Infections ● Candidiasis (thrush) ● Fungal Infection o respitory system and Vagina ● Colds ● Flu ● intestinal Infection
Transmission “HIV is spread by sexual contact with an infected person, sharing drug injection needles and / or syringes with someone infected…” (CDC, 2007).
Modes of Transmission 1.injection drug use 2.sexual intercourse 3.kissing 4.sex toys 5.mother to child Fluid Exchange: blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, vaginal fluid, rectal fluid, breast milk Mucous membrane contact Open sores, abrasions, cuts
Modes of Transmission 1.Injection drug use blood-contaminated syringe reuse 2. Sexual intercourse Mucous membrane absorption Anal: rectal lining tear, damage, urethra entry Vaginal: vaginal lining tear, menstrual blood Oral: open sores, cut lips, in mouth ejaculation
Modes of Transmission 3. Kissing bleeding gums, mouth sores, tissue damage, cuts 4. Sex toys vaginal secretions on toys 5. Perinatal HIV transmission ¼ to ⅓ untreated mothers will infect baby child birth breast Milk placenta? NO!
Modes of Transmission Behavioral Factors: Unprotected sexual activities Numerous sexual partners Presence of other STIs
Symptoms Advanced HIV Infection: Oral anomalies Fevers Diarrhea / Weight loss Respiratory problems Vision impairment Skin rashes / itchiness Newly Infected: Asymptomatic period Flu like symptoms
Diagnosis AIDS is a medical diagnosis determined by a physician using the specific CDC criteria (CDC, 2007).
Testing ●Who needs to get tested? ●risky behaviors Types of Testing 1.EIA (enzyme immunoassay) 2.Western Blot 3.Rapid Test 4.Home Testing Kits
EIA (enzyme immunoassay) Most common screening test HIV-antibody test If infected with HIV, the body produces antibodies to fight off the virus. The presence of these antibodies concludes a positive test. blood, saliva, urine Results within a couple of days-weeks Reliable If positive, followed up by a Western Blot test
Rapid Test Results in 20 mins Detects HIV antibodies through either blood or saliva Easy to use Accuracy similar to EIA tests Pricing ranges from $14-$26 FDA approved OraQuick Oral swab If positive, follow up with healthcare provider Western Blot → confirmation
Home Testing Kits Home Access HIV-1 Test System Licensed by the FDA in 1997 Procedure Prick finger Place blood on sample card Mail blood sample to designated lab Identification number
Antiretroviral Therapy ● Lowers amount of HIV in body ● Medications used to treat HIV ● Does not cure ● Taken everyday for the rest of the infected person’s life o Slows down the progress of HIV in the body → allows the immune system to repair what has been weaken
Antiretroviral Therapy ● Combination Therapy o Used to decrease the chance of drug resistance
Women and HIV They are vulnerable due to: ● vaginal lining which can tear easily ● mucous membranes that absorb the virus ● age influences likelihood of contracting HIV o younger females have immature cervixes ● urethra can lead virus to blood stream
Possibility of Creating a Family ● Women can still get pregnant if infected with HIV ● About 120,000 - 160,000 women in the U.S. have HIV ● 6,000-7,000 of them give birth annually
True or False? An HIV positive mother has greater than 25% chance of infecting her baby with HIV. FALSE
Expecting Mothers & HIV ● 25% chance IF HIV-positive mother is not being treated during pregnancy, labor, or delivery. ● BUT less than 2% IF mother takes preventative measures. ● Early detection and ART → transmission to infant is about 1%
Mothers & Children Living With HIV Talk to your children Administer your child’s medication Support!
Living with HIV/AIDS Stay Healthy Do Tell Get Tested! Maintain Positive :)
References AIDS.Gov. (2013). Stages of HIV Infection. What are the Stages of HIV infection? Retrieved from:https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed- with-hiv-aids/hiv-in-your-body/stages-of-hiv/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2007). HIV/AIDS: HIV Basics. Retrieved from:http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/index.htmlhttp://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/index.html CDC - HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children - Pregnant Women, Gender, Risk. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/gender/pregnantwomen/facts http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/gender/pregnantwomen/facts HRET -HIV | Considering the Costs | Considering the Costs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.edhivtestguide.org/EDHIChooPoin4096.html HIV and AIDS Treatment & Care | AVERT. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.avert.org/hiv-and-aids-treatment-care.htmhttp://www.avert.org/hiv-and-aids-treatment-care.htm HIV Testing | AVERT. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.avert.org/hiv-testing.htm Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV | AVERT. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.avert.org/prevention-mother-child- transmission-pmtct-hiv.htmhttp://www.avert.org/prevention-mother-child- transmission-pmtct-hiv.htm What Is Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)? | aidsinfonet.org | The AIDS InfoNet. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view/403