Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:
1The Respiratory System UEQ: How do we exchange oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the human body?
2What is the respiratory system? The system thatbrings oxygen into the body and expels carbon dioxide out of the body.ensures that during inspiration, or inhalation, air is brought from the atmosphere to the lungs by a series of cavities, tubes and openings.ensures that during expiration, or exhalation, air is pushed out of the lungs into the atmosphere using the same structures.
3THINK ABOUT IT: WHAT ORGANS ARE APART OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT? Major OrgansAccessory OrgansNoseOral cavity , or mouthNasal cavitiesParanasal sinusesPharynx, or throat
5The nose Bone and cartilage support the nose internally Two nostrils or naresAir enters and leaves through hereInternal hairs guard nostrilsPrevents larger particles carried in air
6The nasal cavities Hollow space behind the nose Divided into narrow canals separated from each other by cartilage and bone – nasal septum.Nasal conchaebones and bony processes that divide the cavity into passagewaysSupport the mucous membraneIncreases surface areaPseudostratified ciliated columnar epitheliumSecretes mucous from goblet cellsWater evaporates from this lining moistening the airMucus traps debris coming in with the airLined with blood vesselsAs air enters, heat from blood transfers to air and warms itAdjusts air temp to body temp
7Paranasal sinusesAir filled spaces within the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxillary bones of the skull and opening into the nasal cavity.Lined with mucous membranes – continuous with the lining of the nasal cavityReduce the weight of the skullResonance chambers that affect quality of voice
8Pharynx, or ThroatFunnel shaped passage way that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynxPassage way for food moving to esophagus, and air moving to the larynxHelps to produce sound of speechHas three parts:Nasopharynx: where the nasal cavities open above the soft palateOropharynx: where the oral cavity opensLaryngopharynx: area that opens up into the larynx
9Pathway of air through the upper respiratory system. REMEMBER!!!! Each time that you take a breath, there are three very important things that happen.1. The air that you breathe in is cleaned by tiny hairs in your nose, trapping little bits of dirt and dust and germs that come in through your nose.2. As you breathe, the air is made slightly wet. Your nose having damp passages does this.3. The next thing that takes place when air enters your nose is that the air is warmed. This happens because the blood flows through the lining of the nose and gives off heat.
10Snot and more.. Protecting us from harm "Snot", is just another word for mucus. When bits of stuff get stuck in your nose hairs, it’s the mucus or snot that surrounds the stuff and traps it.Boogers:Boogers are dried-up snot and dirty nose debris.Encrusted mucus is filled with the junk that’s in the air you breathe - dust, pollen, germs, sand, fungi, smoke, small particles from outer space.
11And now for the mucus model… Achoo…What you'll need:Boiling water (be careful with this)A cupGelatinCorn syrupA teaspoonA forkInstructions:Fill half a cup with boiling water.Add three teaspoons of gelatin to the boiling water.Let it soften before stirring with a fork.Add a quarter of a cup of corn syrup.Stir the mixture again with your fork and look at the long strands of gunk that have formed.As the mixture cools slowly add more water, small amounts at a time.
12Mucus model? – How does it compare to the real thing? Model made up of gelatin (protein) and corn syrup (sugar)Mucus is made mostly of sugars and protein.The long, fine strings you could see inside your fake snot when you moved it around are protein strands.These protein strands make snot sticky and capable of stretching
16Larynx, or voiceboxCartilaginous structure that serves as a passageway for air between the pharynx and trachea.A triangular boxtop of the triangle is located to the front of the neck (Adam’s apple)Framework of muscles and cartilageThyroid cartilageCricoid cartilageEpiglottic cartilageHouses the vocal cordsAllows for air in and out of the tracheaPrevents foreign objects entering into trachea
17Vocal Cords Vocal folds False vocal cords True vocal cords Composed of muscle tissue and connective tissueCovered with mucous membraneFalse vocal cordsUpper foldsDo not produce soundMuscle fibers help close airway when swallowingTrue vocal cordsMuscle tissue and elastic fibersForced air between TVC causes them to vibrate and produce soundWords = changing shapes of pharynx, oral cavity; and use of the tonguePitch= contracting or relaxing muscles that alter tension
18Glottis Opening between vocal cords Durning normal breathing, relaxed vocal cords, the glottis opensDuring swallowing/ eating, muscles around the false vocal cords contract, the glottis closes.
19Epiglottis A flap of soft tissue above the vocal cords The larnyx will move upward against the epiglottis when swallowing to prevent food, water and saliva from entering the lungs.
20The trachea, or windpipe A tube that connects the larynx to the primary bronchiWalls consist of connective tissue and smooth muscleReinforced by c-shaped cartilaginous ringsPrevents the trachea from collapsingLies anterior to the esophagusSoft tissue that completes the c-rings, allow for esophagus to expand as food moves throughThe outermost layer of the mucous membrane that lines the trachea is pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells.Traps particles and moves it upwards to pharynx to be swallowed
21The Bronchial TreeTubes that allow air to pass through, and are reinforced with cartilaginous rings, like the trachea.Divided into the left and right primary bronchi, which lead into the lungsDivison is located in the mediastinum, approximately at the level of the 5th thoracic vertebraeBranch into the secondary bronchitertiary bronchikeep dividing until they are about 1 mm in diameterBronchi that are 1 mm in diameter are called bronchiolesTerminal bronchiolesRespiratory bronchiolesAlveolar ductsAlveolar sacsAlveoli
22The Lungs Paired, cone-shaped organs Separated by the mediastinumDiaphragm and rib cage enclose themSuspended by the bronchus and major blood vesselsVisceral pleura surrounds each lungContinues to the parietal pleura which attaches and surounds the throacic cavityPotential space between the pleura = pleural cavityFilled with serous fluidReduces friciton of lungs moving against the thoracic cavity during breathingRight lung has three lobes, the left lung only two – due to the heart pointing towards the leftBroken even further into lobules, which house bronchioles serving the alveoli
23The Alveoli Lungs have about 300 million alveoli Each alveoli sac is surrounded by blood capillariesMade up of simple squamous epitheliumThis is the site where gas exchange happens
24Be sure to complete the following Your check it questionsThe diagram at the back of the packet
25WARM UP!Why is it important for the capillaries from the cardiovascular system to be numerous and surround the alveoli?When finished with the question, take a moment and breathe – notice what happens. Write it down.
26Cardio/ Respiratory connection Oxygen diffuses from alveolar walls and enters the blood.(where it can now go to other cells in the body)Carbon Dioxide diffuses from the blood through the walls and enters the alveoli. (where it can be exhaled and released)
27Alveoli Exchange of Gases: Using the picture below EXPLAIN the gas exchange process:
28Why do the blood cells start blue and then turn red?
30Breathing, or ventilation Has two phasesInspiration – moving air into the lungsExpiration –moving air out of the lungs
31Inspiration Active phase of ventilation In this phase the diaphragm and muscles of the ribcage contract – diaphragm moves downward and looks flattenedThe volume of the thoracic cavity will increase, so does the lung volumeThe pressure within the alveoli is less than the pressure outside in the atmosphere. There is a difference in pressure (or pressure gradient) and air will move into the body naturally.
32Pressure and volume have an inverse relationship Pressure inside the lungs and alveoli decrease, atmospheric pressure will push outside air into airwaysDuring this time the pressure in the alveoli drops 2mmHg below atmospheric pressureIn response, atmospheric pressure forces air into the airwaysThe external intercostal muscles between ribs are stimulated and move the ribs and sternum upwardsEnlarges thoracic cavity even furtherInternal pressure is further reduced; increases amount of air into the lungs
33Water within the serous fluid found in between the visceral and parietal pleura creates an attraction between the pleura, and the membranes move upward during inspirationThis expands the lung in all directions.Too much water in the alveolar sacs creates a surface tension that may collapse the alveoli.Certain cells within the alveoli secrete a surfactant – lipids and proteinsFills the alveolar air spaces – reducing the tendency to collaspe, especially when lung volumes are lowMakes it easier to inflate alveoli
34Expiration Passive phase of ventilation Come from elastic recoil and surface tensionNo effort is required for air to leave the bodyDiaphragm and muscles of the ribcage relax – diaphragm looks cone shapedPressure within the alveoli increases to about 1mmHg above atmospheric pressureForces the air out of the lungsThe volume of the thoracic cavity will decrease, so does the lung volume
35Maximum inspiration and forced expiration Involves muscles of the back, chest, and neckThoracic cavity increases more than normal, for maximum lung capacityUsually during exerciseContraction of the ribcage muscles forces the ribcage to move downward and inwardInvolves the abdominal muscles pushing against the abdominal organs which pushes against the diaphragm, pushing more out of the lungsUsually during exercise, singing, playing an instrument, or blowing out a candle
37Volumes of Air in the Lungs Warm UP: Are our lungs ever void of air? Why or why not?
38Volumes of air within the lungs during ventilation Why do we need to know this?Knowing the amounts of air in the lungs and how it flows through the respiratory system helps to diagnose respiratory issues
39Respiratory Air Volumes and Capacities Spirometry is the test that measures air volumes in or out of the lungs.Three distinct repiratory volumes can be measured:Resting Tidal volumeInspiratory reserve volumeExpiratory reserve volumeOne inspiration + one expiration = respiratory cycle.Air that enters of leaves during a respiratory cycle is the tidal volume
40Respiratory cycle: One inspiration plus one expiriation Respiratory cycle: One inspiration plus one expiriation. (Breathe in- breathe out)Resting Tidal volume- the normal amount of air that enters the lungs and leaves the lungs during a respiratory cycle.The average is about 500 milliliters of air per breath in and the same amount out.
41During Tidal volume you do not use the total amount of space in your lungs! They only use about 75-80%
42Inspiratory Reserve Volume: When you take a deep breath in to hold more air than a usual breath. “Forced inhalation”.Expiratory Reserve Volume: Forced expiration. Expelling air beyond the tidal volume. Even after the most forceful exhale however you still have air left in your lungs.This left over air is called the Residual Volume.
44Vital Capacity: Combining the tidal volume with both the inspiratory reserve volume and the expiratory reserve volume.Total Lung Capacity: The vital capacity plus the residual volume. All the possible air that can come into or out of the lungs, including the air that never leaves the lungs.
46Fill in the following table with the appropriate terms:
47Respiratory centers and control of breathing… Medullary respiratory center- controls both inspiration and expirationFound within the pons and medulla oblongataMedulla oblongata has two groupsVentral respiratory group – controls basic rhythmDorsal respiratory group- controls the diaphragm
48Factors that Affect breathing flow charts.. CHECK IT! PPCreate flow charts for the following factors that affect breathingCO2 levelsO2 levelsDepth of breathingEmotional upsetHolding your breathHyperventilation
49How and why Gas Exchange happens: Location: The alveoliMethod: Diffusion
50Partial pressure: In a mixture of gases such as air or blood, each gas accounts for a portion of the total pressure the mixture produces. The amount of pressure each gas contributes is the partial pressure.
51Diffusion of Gases:When blood reaches the alveolus / lungs the blood is oxygen poor- it has depleted its oxygen source to the rest of the body and needs to “pick up more”.
52Diffusion of Gases:Due to the pressure gradient, oxygen will move from the alveoli to the blood stream.In other words, there is more oxygen in the alveoli than the bloodstream, so oxygen will naturally move into the bloodstream.
53So what about Carbon Dioxide? Carbon dioxide will beorin the bloodstream.higherlowerCarbon dioxide willorthe bloodstream into the alveoli where it will be expelled out of the body.move intoout of
56Factors affecting release of O2 Increase in CO2 concentration= increase in O2 releaseIf bloodBecomes acidicTemperate increasesMore O2 is released to skeletal muscle during physical activity; less O2 released to non active cellsHYPOXIA – deficiency of O2 reaching tissues
57GAS TRANSPORT - OXYGENOXYHEMOGLOBINHEMOGLOBINPO2is high – oxygen dissolves in blood and combines with hemoglobin to form oxyhemoglobinUnstable bondingAs PO2 decreases in the body, O2 is released from oxyhemoglobinO2 diffues across the membrane of cells to be used in cellular respiration98% of oxygen in blood binds to hemoglobina protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
59CO2 TransportCapillary blood gains CO2, as tissues have increased levels of PCO2Transported in three ways to the lungs:Dissolved in plasmaBound to hemoglobinBicarbonate ionsAmount of CO2 dissolved in plasma dependent on its partial pressureIncreased PCO2 = more CO2 in solutionOnly 7% of CO2 transports in this form
60GAS TRANSPORT CO2 loosely bonds with hemoglobin = carbaminohemoglobin Bicarbonate IonsCO2 loosely bonds with hemoglobin = carbaminohemoglobinDecomposes readily in regions of low PCO2 – releasing CO2Only about 23% of the CO2 carried in the blood is formed in molecule, as this reaction happens slowlyMost important CO2 transport mechanismCO2+ H2O => H2CO3 (carbonic acid)Occurs slowly in plasmaCarbonic anhydrase speeds up reaction, releasing H+ and HCO3- (bicarbonate ions)Bicarbonate ions diffuse into the plasma – 70% of all CO2 in blood is transported this way
61CO2 Transport Continued Plasma release CO2Dissolved CO2 diffuses into the alveoli (alveoli PCO2 is lowBicarbonate Ions Release CO2As blood passes through the capillaries of the lungsAt same time H+ and HCO3- combine to make H2CO3 under influence of carbonic anhydraseH2CO3 breaks down quickly to form CO2 and H2OCO2 then diffuses into the alveolus
62CO2 Transport Continued Carbaminohemoglobin release of CO2As blood passes through the capillaries of the lungsRelease of CO2 happensWill continue until PCO2 of blood and alveolar air are at equilibrium