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Integumentary, Immune and

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Presentation on theme: "Integumentary, Immune and"— Presentation transcript:

1 Integumentary, Immune and
DEFENSE Integumentary, Immune and Lymphatic Systems

2 DEFENSE How do the integumentary, immune and lymphatic systems work together to defend the body? These systems work together to keep _______________ out of the body and to ____________ any that make it in. pathogens attack

3 Functions of the Integumentary System
protective Acts as a __________ barrier for internal organs and tissues. Prevents __________ like bacteria and viruses from entering the body. Helps to regulate the body’s ____________ by sweating or forming “goose bumps”. pathogens temperature

4 Regulating Temperature
Homeostasis Skin and hair also help the body _______ heat when it is cold. When you sweat, your body places __________ onto the surface of your skin. Water can absorb large amounts of ______ before it evaporates. Because the water absorbs the heat then carries it away, your body can keep itself from ____________. saltwater heat overheating Skin and hair also help the body _______ heat when it is cold. retain

5 Homeostasis The dermis is abundantly supplied with blood vessels that play a role in maintaining body temperature homeostasis. If Cold: Blood vessels in the dermis narrow, helping to limit heat loss. Blood bypasses the dermis capillaries temporarily, which allows internal body temperature to stay high. If Hot: Blood vessels widen, bringing heat from the body's core to the skin and increasing heat loss. Skin becomes reddened and warm and allows body heat to radiate from the skin surface.

6 Functions of the Integumentary System
Makes __________ when exposed to UV light. (Fat-soluble vitamin that promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus.) 5. Prevents the body from becoming ___________ due to excess water loss. 6. Aids in _________________, like urea and salts. 7. Acts as a ______________by detecting heat, cold, pressure, and pain vitamin D dehydrated excretion of waste 4. Most people associate the nutrient calcium with healthy bones and teeth, but no matter how much calcium you have in your diet, without vitamin D, your body can’t absorb and use the mineral. So vitamin D is vital for building — and holding — strong bones and teeth. sensory organ

7 Evolutionary Trends The different phyla of animals have very ___________ structures that are a part of their integumentary systems which allow them to ____________ to their environments. unique adapt

8 Evolutionary Trends of Integumentary System
Simple Complex Animal Taxon Invertebrates Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Adaptations epithelial cells secrete mucous; shells and exoskeletons made of chitin; stinging or sharp outer cells Mucous secreted over scales decreases friction in the water Have mucous glands to keep skin moist to help with respiration and body temperature Dry, scaly skin made of keratin to prevent water loss and regulate body temperature Feathers to fly; glands secrete oily substances to keep feathers waterproof; colorful for communication Picture of Adaptation Examples Jellyfish, worms, insects, crustaceans Frogs, Toads, Salamanders Alligator, Lizards, Snakes

9 Integumentary System in Mammals
The main organ of the integumentary system is the _____. skin It contains three layers known as the________, ______, and the _____________________, which is the underlying layer of ______ for insulation. epidermis dermis Hypodermis (subcutaneous) fat

10 MAMMALS 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis
outer layer approximately cells thick covered in __________ Hair and nails protude from this layer contains melanin pigment that gives skin its color 2. Dermis thickest layer contains blood vessels, muscles, nerves, hair follicles, _______ glands and subaceous (_____) glands pores sweat oil

11 Epidermis Outer layer of skin Does not contain blood vessels
Contains two layers Outside of the epidermis is made up of dead cells and comes into contact with the environment. Inner layer is made up of living cells and undergo rapid cell division, producing new cells that push older cells to the surface of the skin (shed once every 4-5 weeks) Keratin – tough protein made here that eventually forms the waterproof covering for your skin. Contain melanocytes, which produce melanin. Melanin is a dark brown pigment that helps protect the skin from damage by absorbing UV rays from the sun. Differences in skin color are caused by the different amounts of melanin the melanocytes produce. NO BLOOD VESSELS here, therefore when you slightly scratch your arm it doesn’t bleed!

12 Dermis Inner layer of the skin Contains:
Located between the epidermis and the hypodermis. Contains: Collagen fibers Blood vessels Nerve endings Glands Sweat glands – body perspires when too hot Oil glands (sebaceous) – produces oily secretion (sebum) to keep skin flexible and waterproof Sensory receptors Smooth muscles Hair follicles

13 Integumentary System Levels of Organization
Epidermis, Dermis Skin Integumentary Epithelial

14 Fun Fact: Believe it or not, the integumentary system is the ________ organ system and your _____ is the largest organ in your body. largest skin

15 Interaction with Other Body Systems
Skin is the first line of defense in the immune system response. The circulatory system and skin regulate body temperature. Skin and the excretory system excrete water, urea, salts, and other wastes through sweat. Receptors of the nervous system are located in skin.

16 Immune System: The main function of the immune system is to fight off ___________. This is the job of the ________ blood cells and the ___________ they create. infections white antibodies

17 Immune System: White blood cell travels throughout the body through the ___________ system. This allows them to be ___________ to every part of the body. circulatory distributed

18 The Immune Response A substance that triggers this immune response is known as an antigen. Examples of Antigens: Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Pathogens. Cells that recognize specific antigens (lymphocytes): B Lymphocytes (B Cells): Provide immunity against pathogens and antigens in body fluids. T Lymphocytes (T Cells): Provide a defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells. Phagocytes: Large cells that eat pathogens and damaged cells.

19 Types of White Blood Cells:
Macrophages ______________ - These cells kill bacteria by __________ them (process known as _____________). This means that they pull the pathogen inside of themselves where the pathogen is trapped and __________ by proteins called __________. These cells are made in bone marrow. ________ - These cells make ___________ to fight inside body fluids. Memory B cells are also responsible for “remembering” a specific bacteria or virus. This causes your body to be __________ to them in the future. B cells engulfing antibodies phagocytosis digested enzymes immune

20 Antibodies are an important part of the immune system
Antibodies are an important part of the immune system. Once they attach to an _________(substance that triggers immune response), they can prevent further infection and signal the ______ and _______ to destroy the toxic invaders. antigen spleen liver

21 Immune Response When a pathogen invades the body, its antigens are recognized by a small fraction of the body’s B cells…these cells then release antibodies. Antibodies - Proteins that recognize and bind to antigens. Carried in the bloodstream As the antibodies overcome the infection, the plasma cells die out and stop producing antibodies.

22 Types of White Blood Cells:
_________ - These white blood cells actually attack inside the body’s cells which contain ________ or _________. They also target and destroy ________ cells which are the root of all cancers. T Cells bacteria viruses tumor

23 Cell-Mediated Immunity
When a virus or cancer begins to invade your body, antibodies alone cannot destroy them. T cells divide and become specific to kill the infected cells: Killer T cells – track down and destroy the tissue containing the antigen Helper T cells – produce memory T cells (able to activate killer T and B cells) Suppressor T cells – release substances that shut down the Killer T cells after the antigens are under control. A breast cancer cell above and a prostate cancer cell below being attacked by Killer T Cells

24 Penicillin and other ___________ can also be used to help the immune system, but it is important that you understand that antibiotics only kill _________! antibiotics bacteria They will NOT help if you are sick with a _____ because viruses are not cells! virus

25 H.I.V. Human Immunodeficiency Virus A.I.D.S.
H.I.V. is the virus that causes __________, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It attacks a special T cell known as a __________ cell. A.I.D.S. Helper T

26 The lymphatic system removes fluid from around cells and filters out pathogens.
When this fluid passes through the _____________, white blood cells attack and kill any pathogens. lymph nodes

27 When bacteria and other pathogens travel through the lymph nodes, they are attacked by white blood cells. This causes the lymph nodes to ______. • Lymphatic system also collects fluid lost by the blood and returns it to the circulatory system swell

28 Organs in the Lymphatic System
Lymph nodes (densely packed area of tissue that filters lymph and traps microorganisms) Lymph vessels (run along side veins collecting and carrying lymph back to the circulatory system) Lymph (fluid found in lymph vessels) Spleen (Removes damaged red blood cells from blood) Tonsils (Pair of enlarged lymph nodes in throat) Thymus gland (Location where some white blood cells mature)

29 Evolutionary Trends of Lymph & Immune Systems
Simple Complex Animal Taxon Invertebrates Fish Mammals Adaptations Cells recognize peptidoglycan, a substance found in the cell walls of bacteria, and destroy the bacteria Thymus makes T lymphocytes and B cells Body produces antibodies specific to certain pathogens Examples bees, flies Human

30 Lymph & Immune System Levels of Organization
Lymph nodes, bone marrow Spleen, Liver Lymph and Immune White Blood Cells, B-cells, T-cells, macrophages

31 Interactions with other Body Systems
Skin of the integumentary system is the first line of defense of the immune system. The circulatory system transports immune cells around the body. It also helps control body fluids with the lymphatic system. The excretory system excretes excess fluids and pathogens. Bones of the skeletal system produce lymphocytes and macrophages.

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