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Dr.Srirath Pakdeeronachit.  List the simplest to the most complex levels of a living organism.  Describe the main parts of a cell.  Label a diagram.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr.Srirath Pakdeeronachit.  List the simplest to the most complex levels of a living organism.  Describe the main parts of a cell.  Label a diagram."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr.Srirath Pakdeeronachit

2  List the simplest to the most complex levels of a living organism.  Describe the main parts of a cell.  Label a diagram of a typical cell.  Name and give the functions of the four basic types of tissues in the body.  Define basic terms pertaining to the structure and function of body tissues.  Recognize and use roots and suffixes pertaining to cells, tissues, and organs.

3 1. The root that means “cell” is: (a) spher (b) cyt (c) fibr (d) gen

4 2. The root that means “tissue” is: (a) hist (b) cellul (c) cyst (d) hem

5 3. The control center of the cell is the: (a) membrane (b) ribosome (c) virus (d) nucleus

6 4. The process of body cell division is called: (a) separation (b) segregation (c) mitosis (d) gestation

7 5. A compound that speeds the rate of a metabolic reaction is a(n): (a) gene (b) salt (c) enzyme (d) mineral

8 6. The substance that makes up the cell’s genetic material is: (a) DNA (b) protein (c) acid (d) base

9 7. Chemicals: cells: tissues: ­­__________: systems: organism. What belongs in the blank? (a) organs (b) genes (c) enzymes (d) nuclei

10 8. The root morph/o means: (a) reproduction (b) fat (c) form (d) balance

11 Simple Complex

12 Basic unit of living organisms Carries out metabolism Energy generated by chemical ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

13 Nucleus - the control region of the cell - contains chromosome (genetic information) - DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)Gene - RNA (Ribonucleic acid)

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16 RootMeaningExampleDefinition of Example morph/oformpolymorphoushaving many forms cyt/o, -cytecellcytologistone who studies cells nucle/onucleusnuclearpertaining to a nucleus kary/onucleuskaryotypepicture of a cell's chromosomes organized according to size hist/o, histi/o tissuehistocompatibilitytissue similarity that permits transplantation fibr/ofiberfibrosisabnormal formation of fibrous tissue reticul/onetworkreticuluma network

17 RootMeaningExampleDefinition of Example aden/oglandadenomatumor (-oma) of a gland papill/onipplepapillaprojection that resembles a nipple myx/omucusmyxadenitisinflammation (-itis) of a mucus- secreting gland muc/omucus, mucous membrane mucorrheaincreased flow (-rhea) of mucus somat/o, -some body, small body chromosomesmall body that takes up color (dye) (chrom/o)

18 Stages in Cell Division “Mitosis” Dividing of body cell

19 RootMeaningExampleDefinition of Example blast/o, - blast immature cell, productive cell, embryonic cell histioblasta tissue-forming cell genorigin, formationkaryogenesisformation of a nucleus phag/oeat, ingestautophagyself-destruction of a cell's organelles philattract, absorbbasophilicattracting basic stain plasformation, molding, development hyperplasiaoverdevelopment of an organ or tissue tropact on, affectchronotropicaffecting rate or timing (chron/o) troph/ofeeding, growth, nourishment atrophytissue wasting

20 Cell Fiber Histology Form Nucleus Gland Nipple Mucous Body Network Cytology Morphology Histology

21 d c e b a d c e b a genorigin, formation phag/oeat, ingest blast/o immature, productive, embryonic cell plas formation, molding, development troph/o feeding, growth, nourishment

22 Chromosomes Carry genetic information 46 chromosomes in every cell (except sex cells) Genes Separate units of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Control formation of enzymes (needed for metabolic reactions)

23 Four basic types Epithelial Covers and protects body structures, lines organs, vessels, and cavities Simple: Single layer, absorbs substances from one system to another Stratified: multiple layers, protects deeper tissue

24 Four basic types Connective Supports and binds body structures

25 Muscle (root: my/o) Contracts to produce movement Three types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth/visceral

26 Nervous (root: neur/o) Makes up brain, spinal cord and nerves Coordinates body responses by transmission of electrical impulses

27 Simplest tissue Mucous membranes: secrete mucus Serous membranes: secrete watery fluid, line body cavities and cover organs Fibrous membranes: cover and support organs

28 Organs Comprised of tissues Grouped into systems Systems Have specific function Work together, not independently Goal of systems: homeostasis Organs of Digestive Tract

29 Proteins Enzymes Hormones Structural materials Carbohydrates Sugars (main energy source: sugar glucose) Starches Lipids Fats

30 Word PartMeaningExampleDefinition Of Example Suffixes -aseenzymelipaseenzyme that digests fat (lipid) -osesugarlactosemilk sugar Roots hydr/owater, fluidhydrationaddition of water; relative amount of water present gluc/oglucoseglucogenesisproduction of glucose glyc/osugar, glucosenormoglycemianormal blood sugar level

31 Word PartMeaningExampleDefinition Of Example Roots sacchar/osugarpolysaccharidecompound containing many simple sugars amyl/ostarchamyloidresembling starch lip/olipid, fatlipophilicattracting or absorbing lipid adip/ofatadiposuriapresence of fat in the urine (ur/o) steat/ofattysteatorrheadischarge (-rhea) of fatty stools prote/oproteinproteaseenzyme that digests protein

32 sugar water, fluid starch lipid, fat glucose fat steat/ofat lip/ofat glyc/o sugar gluc/o glucose

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35 1. The root that means “cell” is: (a) spher (b) cyt (c) fibr (d) gen

36 2. The root that means “tissue” is: (a) hist (b) cellul (c) cyst (d) hem

37 3. The control center of the cell is the: (a) membrane (b) ribosome (c) virus (d) nucleus

38 4. The process of body cell division is called: (a) separation (b) segregation (c) mitosis (d) gestation

39 5. A compound that speeds the rate of a metabolic reaction is a(n): (a) gene (b) salt (c) enzyme (d) mineral

40 6. The substance that makes up the cell’s genetic material is: (a) DNA (b) protein (c) acid (d) base

41 7. Chemicals: cells: tissues: ­­__________: systems: organism. What belongs in the blank? (a) organs (b) genes (c) enzymes (d) nuclei

42 8. The root morph/o means: (a) reproduction (b) fat (c) form (d) balance

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44 1. The root that means “cell” is: (a) spher (b) cyt (c) fibr (d) gen

45 2. The root that means “tissue” is: (a) hist (b) cellul (c) cyst (d) hem

46 3. The control center of the cell is the: (a) membrane (b) ribosome (c) virus (d) nucleus

47 4. The process of body cell division is called: (a) separation (b) segregation (c) mitosis (d) gestation

48 5. A compound that speeds the rate of a metabolic reaction is a(n): (a) gene (b) salt (c) enzyme (d) mineral

49 6. The substance that makes up the cell’s genetic material is: (a) DNA (b) protein (c) acid (d) base

50 7. Chemicals: cells: tissues: ­­__________: systems: organism. What belongs in the blank? (a) organs (b) genes (c) enzymes (d) nuclei

51 8. The root morph/o means: (a) reproduction (b) fat (c) form (d) balance


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