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Chapter 4 Histology Biol 2401. All cells (except blood) anchored to each other or their matrix by intercellular junctions Intercellular Junctions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Histology Biol 2401. All cells (except blood) anchored to each other or their matrix by intercellular junctions Intercellular Junctions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Histology Biol 2401

2 All cells (except blood) anchored to each other or their matrix by intercellular junctions Intercellular Junctions

3 Tight Junctions Encircle the cell joining it to surrounding cells – zipperlike complementary grooves and ridges Prevents passage between cells – GI and urinary tracts


5 Desmosomes Patch between cells holding them together – cells spanned by filaments terminating on protein plaque cytoplasmic intermediate filaments also attach to plaque Uterus, heart and epidermis


7 Gap Junctions Ring of transmembrane proteins form a water- filled channel – small solutes pass directly from cell to cell – in embryos, cardiac and smooth muscle


9 Glands A gland is a cell or organ that secretes substances in the body or releases them for elimination. Secrete substances – composed of epithelial tissue Exocrine glands connect to surface with a duct (epithelial tube) Endocrine glands secrete (hormones) directly into bloodstream Mixed organs do both – liver, gonads, pancreas Unicellular glands – endo or exocrine – goblet or intrinsic cells of stomach wall

10 Exocrine Gland Structure Stroma = capsule and septa divide gland into lobes and lobules Parenchyma = cells that secrete Acinus = cluster of cells surrounding the duct draining those cells

11 Types of Exocrine Glands Simple glands - unbranched duct Compound glands - branched duct Shape of gland – acinar - secretory cells form dilated sac – tubuloacinar - both tube and sacs

12 Types of Secretions Serous glands – produce thin, watery secretions sweat, milk, tears and digestive juices Mucous glands – produce mucin that absorbs water to form a sticky secretion called mucus Mixed glands contain both cell types Cytogenic glands release whole cells – sperm and egg cells

13 Holocrine Gland Secretory cells disintegrate to deliver their accumulated product – oil-producing glands of the scalp

14 Merocrine glands release their product by exocytosis – tears, gastric glands, pancreas, etc. Apocrine glands are merocrine glands with confusing appearance (apical cytoplasm not lost) – mammary and armpit sweat glands Merocrine and Apocrine Secretion

15 Mucous Membranes Epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae Lines passageways that open to the exterior: reproductive, respiratory, urinary and digestive – Mucous (movement of cilia) trap and remove foreign particles and bacteria from internal body surfaces

16 Membrane Types Cutaneous membrane = skin – stratified squamous epithelium over connective tissue – relatively dry layer serves protective function Synovial membrane lines joint cavities – connective tissue layer only, secretes synovial fluid Serous membrane (serosa) –internal membrane – simple squamous epithelium over areolar tissue, produces serous fluid – covers organs and lines walls of body cavities

17 Membranes Synovial Membrane Cutaneous Membrane Serous Membrane

18 Tissue Growth Hyperplasia = tissue growth through cell multiplication Hypertrophy = enlargement of preexisting cells – muscle grow through exercise Neoplasia = growth of a tumor (benign or malignant) through growth of abnormal tissue

19 Changes in Tissue Types Tissues can change types Differentiation – unspecialized tissues of embryo become specialized mature types mesenchyme to muscle Metaplasia – changing from one type of mature tissue to another simple cuboidal tissue before puberty changes to stratified squamous after puberty

20 Stem Cells Undifferentiated cells with developmental plasticity Embryonic stem cells – totipotent (any cell type possible) source = cells of very early embryo – Pluripotent (tissue types only possible) source = cells of inner cell mass of embryo Adult stem cells (undifferentiated cells in tissues of adults) – multipotent (bone marrow producing several blood cell types) – unipotent (only epidermal cells produced)

21 Tissue Shrinkage and Death Atrophy = loss of cell size or number – disuse atrophy from lack of use (leg in a cast) Necrosis = pathological death of tissue – gangrene - insufficient blood supply – gas gangrene - anaerobic bacterial infection – infarction - death of tissue from lack of blood – decubitus ulcer - bed sore or pressure sore Apoptosis = programmed cell death – cells shrink and are phagocytized (no inflammation)

22 Tissue Repair Regeneration – replacement of damaged cells with original cells – skin injuries and liver regenerate Fibrosis – replacement of damaged cells with scar tissue function is not restored – healing muscle injuries, scarring of lung tissue in TB or healing of severe cuts and burns of the skin – keloid is healing with excessive fibrosis (raised shiny scars)

23 Tissue Engineering Production of tissues and organs in the lab – framework of collagen or biodegradable polyester fibers – seeded with human cells – grown in “bioreactor” (inside of mouse) supplies nutrients and oxygen to growing tissue Skin grafts already available – research in progress on heart valves, coronary arteries, bone, liver, tendons

24 Wound Healing of a Laceration Damaged vessels leak blood Damaged cells and mast cells leak histamine – dilates blood vessels – increases blood flow – increases capillary permeability Plasma carries antibodies, clotting factors and WBCs into wound

25 Wound Healing of a Laceration Clot forms Scab forms on surface Macrophages start to clean up debris

26 Wound Healing of a Laceration New capillaries grow into wound Fibroblasts deposit new collagen to replace old material Fibroblastic phase begins in 3-4 days and lasts up to 2 weeks

27 Wound Healing of a Laceration Epithelial cells multiply and spread beneath scab Scab falls off Epithelium thickens Connective tissue forms only scar tissue (fibrosis) Remodeling phase may last 2 years

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