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Health Sciences 1101 Medical Terminology Module 6 The Digestive System.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Sciences 1101 Medical Terminology Module 6 The Digestive System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Sciences 1101 Medical Terminology Module 6 The Digestive System

2 General Digestive System Terms Gastr/o: Pertaining to the stomach Enter/o: Pertaining to the intestines Gatrologist, enterologist and gastroenterologist -pepsia: Pertaining to digestion Dent/o: Pertaining to the teeth Odont/o: Pertaining to the teeth Dentist, odontist, periodontist, orthodontist

3 Digestive System Basics

4 Digestive System Organ Terms Gingiv/o: Gums Gloss/o or lingu/o: Tongue Or/o or stomat/o: Mouth Esophag/o: Esophagus Pharyg/o: Pharynx Maxill/o: Jaw

5 Digestive System Organ Terms Gastr/o: Stomach Duoden/o: Duodenum Enter/o: Intestines Jejun/o: Jejunum Ile/o: Illeum

6 Digestive System Organ Terms Append/o or appendic/o: Appendix Col/o or colon/o: Colon Proct/o: Anus or rectum Rect/o: Rectum Sigmoid/o: Sigmoid colon

7 Digestive System Organ Terms Cholangi/o: Bile vessel Cholecyst/o: Gallbladder Choledoch/o: Bile duct Hepat/o: Liver Pancreat/o: Pancreas nsplant/html/liverandliverdiseases/anatomyfu nctions.htm

8 Products of the Digestive System Ptyal/o: Saliva Sial/o: Saliva or salivary gland Bowel movement: Feces or defecation Diarrhea: Passage of watery bowel movements Chol/e: bile or gall Emesis: vomit Muc/ous: Mucus

9 Digestive System Pathology Ascites: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Borborygmus: Gurgling or rumbling sound heard over the large intestine. Cirrhosis: Chronic liver disease caused by prolonged destruction of liver cells. Can lead to ineffective liver function and jaundice.

10 Digestive System Pathology Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas Appendicitis: Inflammation of the appendix Dysentery: Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon which can be caused by irritants, bacteria, or parasites.

11 Digestive System Pathology Fistula: Abnormal passage from one site to another or from a hollow organ to the surface. Hernia: Protrusion of projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. Polyp: Small, tumor like, benign growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface. Ulcer: Open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of necrotic tissue.

12 Digestive System Pathology Jaundice: Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes caused by high blood levels of bilirubin Obesity: The accumulation of body fat that exceeds the body’s skeletal and physical standards. Typically 20% above ideal body weight. Morbid Obesity: More severe than obesity. A body mass index (BMI) over 40 which is generally more than 100 pounds above ideal body weight.

13 Digestive System Pathology Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Ulceration of the mucosa of the colon. Also known as ulcerative colitis. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): Condition characterized by gastrointestinal discomfort, signs and symptoms including constipation, diarrhea, gas, and bloating. Also called spastic colon. Crohn disease: Chronic IBD that usually affects the ileum. Also called regional colitis.

14 Digestive System Pathology Gastroesophogeal reflux disease (GRD): Backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter Volvulus: Twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction. Diverticular disease: Bulging pouches or diverticula push the mucosal lining outward through the surrounding muscle.

15 Digestive System Diagnosis and Treatment Barium swallow: Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine after oral administration of barium sulfate Barium enema: Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon using barium sulfate as a contrast medium Scopes: A number of different scope techniques can be used to observe the various organs of the digestive system. Other imaging techniques:

16 Digestive System Diagnosis and Treatment Endoscopy: Visual examination of a cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called and endoscope. Stool Guaiac or hemoccult test: Test performed on feces to detect the presence of blood.

17 Digestive System Diagnosis and Treatment Bariatric surgery: Group of procedures to treat morbid obesity Vertical banded gastroplasty: vertically stapling the stomach near the esophagus to reduce the size of the stomach Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Stomach is stapled and the duodenum is shortened to reduce the absorption of calories and fats. End result is a Y shaped configuration. Lithotripsy: Crushing of stones using sound waves. Nasogastric Intubation: Insertion of a tube into the stomach through the nose


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