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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.

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Presentation on theme: "RESPIRATORY SYSTEM."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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3  MARIA  WILL YOU GO TO THE PROM  WITH ME?  DREW

4  VENTILATION  EXTERNAL RESPIRATION  TRANSPORT  INTERNAL RESPIRATION  CELLULAR RESPIRATION

5  TO GET OXYGEN FOR AEROBIC CELLLULAR RESPIRATION:  FORM ATP  TO GET RID OF CO2  CO2 +H2O= CARBONIC ACID: MAINTAINS PORPER pH

6  UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT  NOSE, NASAL CAVITY, SINUSES, PHARYNX  LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT  LARYNX, TRACHEA, BRONCHIAL TREES, LUNGS

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9  2 NOSTRILS  HAIRS TO REMOVE LARGE PARTICLES

10  NASAL SEPTUM  NASAL CONCHAE  FORM PASSAGEWAYS: SUPERIOR, MIDDLE, INFERIOR MEATUSES ?  UPPER POSTERIOR PORTION: OLFACTORY RECEPTORS  PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM WITH GOBLET CELLS  MANY BLOOD VESSELS ?  WATER FROM MUCOUS MEMBRANE EVAPORATES TO MOISTEN AIR  MUCUS ?  CILIA MOVES MUCUS TO PHARYNX TO BE SWALLOWED?

11  AIR FILLED  IN FRONTAL, SPHENOID, ETHMOID AND MAXILLARY BONES  OPEN INTO NASAL CAVITY WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANE  DRAIN TO NASAL CAVITY  SINUSITIS= HEADACHE  WHY PRESENT ?  RESONANCE

12 en.wikipedia.org SINUSES

13  PASSAGEWAY FOR FOOD AND AIR  AIDS IN FORMING SOUNDS  SUBDIVISIONS: CHAPTER 17

14  LETS AIR IN, KEEP OBJECTS OUT, HOUSE VOCAL CHORDS  MUSCLE AND BONE AND CARTILAGE HELD BY ELASTIC TISSUE  THYROID CARTILAGE= ADAM’S APPLE  EPIGLOTTIC CARTILAGE: ONLY ELASTIC CARTILAGE (HYALINE FOR REST); SUPPORTS EPIGLOTTIS: BLOCKS TRACHEA WHEN SWALLOWING (CHAPTER 17)  CORNICULATE CARTILAGE: MUSCLE ATTACHMENTS REGULATE TENSION ON VOCAL CHORDS FOR SPEECH

15  VOCAL CHORDS OF MUSCLE AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANE  FALSE VOCAL CHORDS  UPPER FOLDS  NO SOUND  CLOSE TRACHEA DURING SWALLOWING  TRUE VOCAL CHORDS  ELASTIC FIBERS  FOR MAKING SOUND  SPEECH: VOCAL CHORDS VIBRATE= SOUND WAVES, WORDS FORMED BY: PHARYNX, ORAL CAVITY, TONGUE AND LIPS  CHANGING TENSION OF LARYNGEAL MUSCLES CHANGES PITCH  INTENSITY (LOUDNESS) FROM FORCE OF AIR

16 VOICE BOX en.wikipedia.org

17  2.5cm DIAMETER, 12.5 cm LONG, INFRONT OF ESOPHAGUS  RIGHT AND LEFT BRONCHI  CILIATED MUCOUS MEMBRANE, GOBLET CELLS  TRAPS PARTICLES AND MOVES UP TO SWALLOW  C SHAPED HYALINE CARTILAGE WHY?

18  TRACHEA  PRIMARY BRONCHI (2)  SECONDARY (LOBAR) BRONCHI (2 LEFT; 3 RIGHT)  TERTIARY (SEGMENTAL) BRONCHI (8 LEFT; 10 RIGHT)  INTRALOBULAR BRONCHIOLES (INTO LOBULES)  TERMINAL LOBULES (50-80 IN EACH LOBULE)  RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES (A FEW ALVEOLI)  ALVEOLAR DUCTS  ALVEOLAR SACS (OUTPOUCHING OF DUCT)  ALVEOLI  CARINA  AIR SLOWS AS IT PASSES THROUGH BRANCHES = ?

19 TRACHEA en.wikipedia.org

20 library.thinkquest.org/

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22 en.wikipedia.org

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25  COMPLETE CARTILAGE RINGS BECONME THINNER TILL GONE, REPLACED BY SMOOTH MUSCLE  ELASTIC FIBERS  PSEUDOSTRATIFIED, CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM  CUBOIDAL  SIMPLE SQUAMOUS  GOBLET CELLS DECREASE IN NUMBER TILL NONE  CILIA LESSEN AND DISAPPEAR  MUCOUS MEMBRANE THINS TILL GONE

26 AALVEOLI = INCREASE SURFACE AREA  INCREASED DIFFUSION 3300 MILLION ALVEOLI = SURFACE AREA OF ½ TENNIS OCURT EEXCHANGE CO2 AND O2

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28  BRONCI AND BLOOD VESSELS ENTER/EXIT AT HILUM  VISCERAL PLEURA FOLDS TO BECOME PARIETAL PLEURA  PLEURAL CAVITY = FILM OF SEROUS FLUID ?  RIGHT HAS 3 LOBES (SUPERIOR, MIDDLE INFERIOR LOBES), LARGER WHY?  LOBES SUBDIVIDE INTO LOBULES

29  INSPIRATION  EXSPIRATION  INSPIRATION:  DIAPHRAGM CONTRACTS: INCREASES CHEST CAVITY SIZE THEREBY DECREASING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE BY 2mm Hg  EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES AND SOME THORACIC MUSCLES MAY ALSO CONTRACT  PLEURAL MEMBRANE HELD TO THORACIC CAVITY WALL BY DECREASED PRESSURE, WATER, SURFACE TENSION  SURFACTANT RELEASED BY ALVEOLAR CELLS WHICH KEEP ALVEOLI FROM STICKING TOGETHER  AIR DIFFUSES IN MUSCLES CONTRACT MORE AND MORE MUSCLES ARE USED TO TAKE A DEEPER BREATH COMPLIANCE= EASE WITH WHICH THE LUNGS EXPAND DECREASES AS LUNGS EXPAND; ALSO DUE TO OBSTRUCTIONS, DAMAGED LUNG TISSUE,

30  EXPIRATION  PASSIVE  ELASTIC RECOIL  OF LUNGS, ABDOMINAL ORGANS, RIBS  PRESSURE INCREASES  FORCEFUL EXPIRATION BY CONTRACTION OF INTERNAL INTERCOSTALS AND AB MUSCLES PUSH DIAPHRAGM UP HIGHER  COLLAPSED LUNG

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32 people.eku.edu

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34  SPIROMETRY  RESPIRATORY CYCLE: ONE INSPIRATION AND ONE EXPIRATION  RESTING TIDAL VOLUME  NORMAL BREATH: ~500mL  INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME  EXTRA AIR ENTERING DURING A MAXIMUM BREATH: ~3,000mL  EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME  EXTRA AIR EXITING DURING A MAXIMUM EXHALE: ~1,100mL  RESIDUAL VOLUME  AIR LEFT IN LUNGS AFTER MAXIMUM EXHALATION: ~1200mL  VITAL CAPACITY  MAXIMUM AIR EXHALED AFTER A MAXIMUM INHALATION: ~4,600mL  INSPIRATORY CAPACITY  TIDAL VOLUME + INSPIRATORY RESERVE: ~3,500mL  FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY  RESPIRATORY RESERVE + RESIDUAL VOLUME: ~2,300mL  TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY  VITAL CAPACITY PLUS RESIDUAL VOLUME: 5,800mL  VARIES WITH AGE, GENDER, BODY SIZE ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE: AIR THAT IN PASSAGEWAY: NOT EXCHANGED ALVEOLAR DEAD SPACE AIR IN ALVEOLI THAT AREN’T WORKING PHYSIOLOGIC DEAD SPACE ANATOMIC AND ALVEOLAR DEAD SPACE IN NORMAL LUNG BOTH THE SAME (ANATOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC) CHECKS FOR DISEASES

35  VOLUME OF NEW AIR MOVED IN EVERY MINUTE  TIDAL VOLUME – PHYSIOLOGIC DEAD SPACE x BREATHING RATE  AFFECTS CONCENTRATION OF O2 AND CO2

36  CLEAR AIR PASSAGEWAYS  COUGHING, SNEEZING  COUGH: AIR FORCED THROUGH CLOSED GLOTTIS  SNEEZE: CLEARS UPPER TRACT, FORCED OUT BY AIR THROUGH GLOTTIS BY IRRITATION  EMOTIONS  LAUGHING, CRYING  HICCUP  SUDDEN INSPIRATION FROM SPASMODIC CONTRACTION  YAWNING:  PURPOSE?  CONTAGIOUS?

37  INVOLUNTARY BUT CAN BE VOLUNTARY SOMEWHAT  RESPIRATORY AREAS IN BRAINSTEM  CONTROL INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION, ADJUST RATE AND DEPTH OF BREATHING  RESPIRATORY CENTER OF BRAINSTEM  MEDULLARY RESPIRATORY CENTER  VENTRAL RESPIRATORY GROUP  BASIC RHYTHM  2 DIFFERENT GROUPS TO CONTROL INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION  DORSAL RESPIRATORY INSPIRATORY MUSCLES (ESPECIALLY DIAPHRAGM)  MORE FORCEFUL  HELPS PROCESS THE SENSORY INFO  PONTINE RESPIRATORY : PNEUMOTAXIC  LIMITS INSPIRATION  AFFECTS RHYTHM

38  PARTIAL PRESSURE:  PROPORTIONAL TO GAS’ CONCENTRATION (O2=21%/160Hg)  BREATHING AFFECTED BY PARTIAL PRESSURE IN BODY FLUIDS, LUNG TISSUE STRETCH, EMOTIONS, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY  RECEPTORS: MECHANORECEPTORS (STRETCH); CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL CHEMORECEPTORS 

39  IN VENTRAL MEDULLA NEAR VAGUS NERVE  INDIRECTLY TO CHANGES IN BLOOD pH  H+ CANNOT PASS BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER  CO2 + H20  H2CO3  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-  HIGHER CO2 INCREASES BREATHING RATE AND TIDAL VOLUME  MORE CO2 EXHALED AND H+ DECREASES  LOW O2 HAS LITTLE EFFECT

40  PICK UP CHANGES IN PARTIAL PRESSURE OF O2  IN CAROTID AND AORTIC BODIES (WALLS)  LOW 02 (BELOW 50%)  IMPULSE TO RESPIRATORY CENTER  INCREASE ALVEOLAR VENTILATION  CAN BE AFFECTED SOME BY CO2 AND H+

41  STRETCH RECEPTORS STIMULATED AS LUNGS EXPAND  VAGUS NERVE IMIPULSE TO PONTINE RESPIRATORY CENTER  SHORTENS INFLATION  PREVENTS OVERINFLATION

42  ALSO AFFECTED BY EMOTIONS, COLD, VOLUNTARILY  HOLDING BREATH: CO2 H+ INCREASE AND EVENTUALLY NEED TO BREATHE  HYPERVENTILATION  DECREASES CO2  PASS OUT

43  ALVEOLAR PORES CAN ALLOW AIR TO PASS TO OTHER ALVEOLI: ALLOWS AIR TO BY-PASS SOME BLOCKAGES  ALVEOLAR PHAGOCYTES IN ALVEOLI AND PORES ?

44  TYPE 2 CELLS: SECRETE SURFACTANT  MOST: TYPE I: SIMPLE SQUAMOUS  CAPILLARIES OUTSIDE ALVEOLI  BASEMENT MEMBRANE HOLDS ALVEOLI AND CAPILLARIES TOGETHER  GAS MOVES THROUGH

45  DIFFUSION: FROM HIGHER PARTIAL PRESSURE TO LOWER  CO2: PRESSURE IN CAPILLARIES = mm45Hg AND ALVEOLI = mm 40Hg  DIFFUSES ?  O2 40mm Hg IN CAPPILARIES AND 104 mm Hg IN ALVEOLI (DIFFUSES?)  DISEASE: HARMS RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE OR REDUCES SURFACE AREA DECREASES DIFFUSION  SINCE RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE IS THIN OTHER CHEMICALS CAN DIFFUSE: ALCOHOL

46  98%  HEMOGLOBIN OF RBC: OXYHEMOGLOBIN  HIGHER THE PARTIAL PRESSURE OF O2 MORE BINDS TILL SATURATION  UNSTABLE BOND: BREAKS WHEN PRESSURE DECREASES  HIGHER CO2 CONCENTRATION, ACIDITY, AND TEMPERATURE RELEASES MORE O2  WHY MORE ACTIVE CELLS RECEIVE MORE O2

47  PICKED UP FROM CELLS ?  DISSOLVED (7%); CARBAMINOHEMOGLOBIN (15- 25%); BICARBONATE (~70%)  BONDS TO AMINE GROUP IMPORTANCE?  RBC CONTAINS CARBONIC ANHYDRASE (?) TURNS CO2 + H20 TO CARBONIC ACID DISSOCIATES TO BICARBONATE + H+  H+ BUFFERED BY DEOXYHEMOGLOBIN  CHLORIDE SHIFT: BICARBONATE LEAVES RBC + CHLORIDE ENTERS TO MAINTAIN IONIC BALANCE  AFTER CO2 DIFFUSES OUT, CARBONIC ACID REFORMS  CO2 + H2O

48  POLLUTED AIR/SMOKING = BRONCHITIS, EMPHYSEMS, CANCER, DAMAGED CELLS  CILIATED EPITHELIUM AND CILIA DECREASE  MUCUS THICKENS, SWALLOWING, GAGGING, COUGHING REFLEXES SLOW TO STOP  MACROPHAGES DON’T WORK AS WELL  =MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

49  SHAPE OF THORACIC CAVITY CHANGES  CARTILAGE STIFFENS  MORE FIBEROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE = LESS FLEXIBILITY  VITAL CAPACITY DECREASES ~-1/3 BY 70  BRONCHIOLES THIN AND DON’T STAY AS OPEN  MORE DEAD SPACE  BY 80 MAXIMUM VENTILATION DROPS BY 50%  300 MILLION 8 YEARS, SAME AMOUNT BUT DEPTH DECREASES BY 40 = 3 SQ FT PER YEAR

50  OXYGEN TRANSOPRT IS LESS EFFICIENT  BREATHING ABILITY DECREASES


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