Presentation on theme: "Miracle of Respiration: watch?v=GERsMFWYZr w&feature=related watch?v=GERsMFWYZr w&feature=related."— Presentation transcript:
Miracle of Respiration: watch?v=GERsMFWYZr w&feature=related watch?v=GERsMFWYZr w&feature=related
1.Identify and give the functions for each of the following: Larynx,Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveoli, Diaphragm & ribs, Pleural membranes, and Thoracic cavity. 2.Compare and contrast the mechanics of the processes of inhalation and exhalation. 3.Explain the relationship between the structure and function of the alveoli. 4.Explain the roles of the cilia and mucous in the respiratory tract. 5.Describe the interaction of the lungs, pleural membranes, ribs, and diaphragm in the breathing process. 6.Explain the roles of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in stimulating the breathing centre in the medulla oblongata. 7.Describe the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen during internal and external respiration. 8.Distinguish between the transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood by explaining the roles of oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, and bicarbonate ions.
is slightly larger The right lung is slightly larger than the left. clean the air warming Hairs in the nose help to clean the air we breathe, as well as warming it. 165 km per hour The highest recorded "sneeze speed" is 165 km per hour. tennis court The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same size as a tennis court million Each red blood cell has about million Hemoglobin molecules.
1,600 km The capillaries in the lungs would extend 1,600 km if placed end to end. half a litre We lose half a litre of water a day through breathing. This is the water vapour we see when we breathe onto glass. 12 and 15 times a minute A person at rest usually breathes between 12 and 15 times a minute. faster in children and women The breathing rate is faster in children and women than in men. 400 million years ago Lung breathing probably evolved about 400 million years ago.
Nasal Sinus capillary beds mucous The Nasal Sinus is surrounded by a lot of capillary beds and mucous glands. Because it is one of the major entry ways into the body it has many things to help keep us safe 1.Nose hairsfilter and trap debris 1.Nose hairs: with the aid of mucous, these hairs filter and trap debris. The debris that is trapped in this manner is discharged through the nose. many white blood cells 2.There are many white blood cells here to recognize and destroy foreign objects. 3.Histamines 3.Histamines are released here as an allergic response when foreign irritants are encountered. This causes runny nose.
air and food This is the common passageway for air and food
flap of tissue trachea swallowing This is a flap of tissue that covers the top of the trachea when swallowing to ensure that food enters the esophagus and not the lungs.
larynx (voice box) When the epiglottis is opened, the air is able to pass through the larynx (voice box) and into the trachea. vocal cords The larynx contains the vocal cords (two tendons that adjust the pitch of sounds according to how taut they are).
grow larger Adam's Apple When a guy goes through puberty, his vocal chords and voice box (larynx) grow larger, and begins to stick out at the front of the throat. This lump is called the Adam's Apple. Male vocal cords: 17 mm & 25 mm in length. Female vocal cords: 12.5 mm & 17.5 mm in length. [1 [1
windpipe This is the windpipe. cartilage This passageway is held open by the presence of C-shaped rings of cartilage. protective This is a protective adaptation. bronchi. The trachea conducts air into the bronchi.
Cilia and mucusCilia and mucus filter the air as it moves through the trachea. traps the dirt push it throatThe mucous traps the dirt and other particles, and the cilia push it to the back of the throat so we swallow it into our digestive system Cilia with pollen trapped by mucous.
Several things happen to the air on its way to the alveoli. It is: Body Temperature 1.Adjusted to Body Temperature: By the time it arrives at the alveoli the air has been in contact with many tissues and is 37 o C. 100% humidity 2.Adjusted to 100% humidity. As inhaled air passes over the mucous passageways, it becomes saturated with water. 3.Cleansed of debris 3.Cleansed of debris in a 2 part process. 1.Nose hairs and mucous in the nasal passageways. 2.Mucous and Cilia in Trachea and bronchi. *Note: cilia do not filter!
two bronchi The trachea splits into two bronchi and takes the air into each lung. cartilage These branches also have cartilage around them, for the same reason. bronchioles. The bronchi conducts air into smaller branching passageways called bronchioles.
alveoli The bronchioles are branching passageways that carry air to its ultimate destination, the alveoli.
sac-like These are the blind sac-like endings at the end of the bronchioles. 700,000 alveoli There are approx. 700,000 alveoli in the human lung. site of gas exchange This is the site of gas exchange. O 2 moves into the blood O 2 leaves the alveoli and moves into the blood to be taken around the body. CO 2 breathed out CO 2 does the opposite and is breathed out.
Why are they so special? NUMEROUS millions surface area 1. NUMEROUS: Each adult lung contains millions of alveoli. This provides lots of surface area for the gases to be exchanged. THIN WALLS one cell thick 2. THIN WALLS: The walls of alveoli are only one cell thick. STRETCH RECEPTORS signal alveoli are full exhalation 3. STRETCH RECEPTORS: They have stretch receptors that signal when the alveoli are full enough (stretched). They send a message to the brain to start exhalation.
Why are they so special? 4.MOIST 4.MOIST: They are very moist and this helps gas exchange. 5.VERY RICH BLOOD SUPPLY exchanged efficiently 5.VERY RICH BLOOD SUPPLY: They have a close association with many blood capillaries so oxygen and carbon dioxide can be exchanged efficiently. 6.LINED WITH A LAYER OF LIPOPROTEINS preventing them from collapsing 6.LINED WITH A LAYER OF LIPOPROTEINS (surfactant) on their inner surface. This helps to maintain surface tension, thus preventing them from collapsing and sticking together during exhalation.
a sheet of muscle This is a sheet of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. inhale it moves down. When you inhale it moves down. exhale it moves up. When you exhale it moves up.
These are the bones that are connected to the vertebral column and sternum. INTERCOSTAL muscles These are INTERCOSTAL muscles between the ribs, which help to move the ribs… 1.Up and out when we inhale. 2.Down and in when we exhale.
Our control of the breathing process is only voluntary to a point. medulla oblongata carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions The medulla oblongata of the brain is sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in the blood. reach a critical level, stimulated diaphragm and the intercostal muscles. When the concentrations of H + and CO 2 reach a critical level, the breathing center in the medulla oblongata is stimulated and sends nerve impulses to the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles.
too much CO 2 contract. When the brain realizes there is too much CO 2 in our blood, it sends a message to the rib muscles and diaphragm to contract. ribs move up and out diaphragm moves down The ribs move up and out, the diaphragm moves down. more space negative air rushes in This creates more space in the lungs (negative air pressure) and air rushes in to fill that space. inhalation This is called inhalation.
alveoli get too stretched stop inhaling. When the alveoli get too stretched (full of air), they send a message to the brain to stop inhaling. relax down and in back up The brain tells the muscles to relax and the ribs move back down and in, while the diaphragm moves back up. decreases space pushed out This decreases the amount of space in the lungs and the air is pushed out. exhalation This is called exhalation.
See a Working Respiratory System: lungs/breathing.htm lungs/breathing.htm
enclose the lungs These are membranes that enclose the lungs. outersticks closely to the walls of the chest The outer pleural membrane sticks closely to the walls of the chest & the diaphragm. innerstuck to the lungs The inner pleural membrane is stuck to the lungs. The two lie very close to each other. slide over the body wall easily The pleura allows the surface of the lungs to slide over the body wall easily, without abrasion.
seals off the thoracic cavity negative air pressure The pleura seals off the thoracic cavity so when the lungs inflate, a negative air pressure is created and this causes air to rush in. when the ribs move out, so do the lungs. These membranes also stick the lungs to the chest cavity walls, so when the ribs move out, so do the lungs.
puncture pneumothoraxcollapse of the lung A puncture to the chest wall, piercing the pleural membrane (even without damaging the lung itself), will result in a pneumothorax, or collapse of the lung. In a situation like this, the negative pressure effectively draws air in through the puncture wound, putting pressure on the surface of the lung instead of inside it and the lung collapses.
conduction of oxygen to the tissues Respiration is the set of processes involved with the conduction of oxygen to the tissues and the removal of the waste product CO 2. There are four aspects to respiration: Breathing 1. Breathing: the inspiration and expiration of air. External Respiration 2. External Respiration: gas exchange at the alveoli. 3.Internal Respiration 3.Internal Respiration: gas exchange at the tissues. 4.Cellular Respiration 4.Cellular Respiration: mitochondria turn O 2 and glucose into CO 2 and H 2 O and ATP energy.
lungs Happens at the lungs. O 2 into the blood CO 2 and water into the alveoli It is the diffusion of O 2 into the pulmonary capillaries (blood) and the diffusion of CO 2 and water into the alveoli to be exhaled with the air.
CO 2 diffuses from [H] to [L] moves into the alveoli Because there is a lot of CO 2 returning to the lungs, and not very much in the alveoli, the CO 2 diffuses from [H] to [L] down its concentration gradient and moves into the alveoli to be breathed out. oxygen diffuses from [H] to [L] into the blood Because there is a lot of O 2 in the fresh air in the alveoli, and not much in the deO 2 blood, the oxygen diffuses from [H] to [L] down its concentration gradient and into the blood.
Conditions in the blood at the alveoli are: lets go of CO 2 love oxygen Under these conditions, hemoglobin lets go of CO 2 and starts to love oxygen. 99% oxyhemoglobin As it leaves the lungs, 99% of hemoglobin is occupied with oxygen it is called oxyhemoglobin. to the tissue cells Hemoglobin transports oxygen to the tissue cells. Basic Basic: pH of ~7.4 Cool Cool: ~37 o C Low (negative) pressure O 2 + Hb HbO 2
tissues Happens at the tissues. O 2 into the tissue CO 2 and water into the blood It is the diffusion of O 2 into the tissue cells, and the diffusion of CO 2 and water into the blood capillaries. The CO 2 is then returned to the heart and sent to the lungs to be removed during exhalation.
O2O2 CO 2
Conditions in the blood at the tissues are: lets go of O 2 love CO 2 and H + Under these conditions, hemoglobin lets go of O 2 and starts to love CO 2 and H +. diffuses into the tissue blood pressure The oxygen diffuses into the tissue spaces along with the water that is forced from the plasma due to blood pressure. Acidic: pH of ~7.3 Warm: ~38 o C High pressure HbO 2 Hb + O 2
O 2 + GLUCOSE CO 2 + H2O +
water is drawn back osmotic pressureCO 2 enters the blood At the venule end of the capillary bed, when water is drawn back into the blood by osmotic pressure, CO 2 enters the blood. Carbon dioxide can be transported in three ways: 1. Dissolved gas, 2. Carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO 2 ), 3. Bicarbonate ion (HCO 3 -)
loves the CO 2 carboxyhemoglobin Because the hemoglobin now loves the CO 2, they join to form carboxyhemoglobin. water bicarbonate ion CARBONIC ANHYDRASE CO 2 also joins with water to make the bicarbonate ion. There is an enzyme in the red blood cells called CARBONIC ANHYDRASE which catalyzes this reaction. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 HCO H + Carbonic anhydrase Carbonic anhydrase CO 2 + Hb HbCO 2
CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 HCO H + Carbonic anhydrase Carbonic anhydrase extra hydrogen ion ACIDIC The extra hydrogen ion from the water is now free. This is BAD as it is ACIDIC and can eat through the blood vessel walls. buffer reduced hemoglobin So, hemoglobin acts as a buffer and joins with the hydrogen ion to make reduced hemoglobin. H + + Hb HHb
hemoglobin dumps CO 2 and H + pick up O 2 When the blood returns to the lungs, the conditions change again, and hemoglobin dumps CO 2 and H + & wants to pick up O 2 again. reverse So all of the reactions happen in reverse. HbCO 2 CO 2 + Hb H + + HCO 3 - H 2 CO 3 CO 2 + H 2 O Carbonic anhydrase Carbonic anhydrase HHb H + + Hb
water and CO 2 At this point, all that is left to be excreted at the lungs is water and CO 2. diffuses into the alveoli exhaled So the CO 2 diffuses into the alveoli and is exhaled. The water will either: exhaled 1. Be exhaled in the air moist 2. Enter the alveoli to keep them moist plasma 3. Remain in the plasma H 2 O + CO 2
REVIEW OF RESPIRATION: Transport of Oxygen:
REVIEW OF RESPIRATION: Transport of Carbon Dioxide:
Smoking causes lung cancer and emphysema Emphysema causes the alveoli to lose their elasticity People who have respiratory disease often have heart disease There are over 4000 chemicals in cigarettes Smoking also destroys the cilia lining in your respiratory system so that dirt and particles can’t be removed
SMOKING POSTER CHILD ofacts.org/poster/ index.html ANIMATION: WHAT SMOKING DOES TO YOUR BODY m.au/default.asp?ar ticle=4215
ASTHMA: Over 20 million people have asthma in the US, and it's the number- one reason that kids and teens chronically miss school. Asthma is a long-term, inflammatory lung disease that causes airways to tighten and narrow when a person with the condition comes into contact with irritants such as cigarette smoke, dust, or pet dander.
BRONCHITIS: Although bronchitis doesn't affect most teens, it can affect those who smoke. In bronchitis, the membranes lining the bronchial tubes become inflamed and an excessive amount of mucus is produced. The person with bronchitis develops a bad cough to get rid of the mucus.
COMMON COLD: Colds are caused by over 200 different viruses that cause inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. The common cold is the most common respiratory infection. Symptoms may include a mild fever, cough, headache, runny nose, sneezing, and sore throat.
CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF): CF is an inherited disease affecting the lungs. CF causes mucus in the body to be abnormally thick and sticky. The mucus can clog the airways in the lungs and make a person more likely to get bacterial infections.
PNEMONIA is an inflammation of the lungs, which usually occurs because of infection (bacteria or virus). Pneumonia causes fever, inflammation of lung tissue, and makes breathing difficult because the lungs have to work harder to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
You can prevent many chronic lung and respiratory illnesses by avoiding smoking, staying away from pollutants and irritants, washing your hands often to avoid infection, and getting regular medical checkups.
SLEEP APNEA: Although the automatic breathing regulation system allows you to breathe while you sleep, it sometimes malfunctions. Apnea involves stoppage of breathing for as long as 10 seconds, in some individuals as often as 300 times per night. This failure to respond to elevated blood levels of carbon dioxide may result from viral infections of the brain, tumors, or it may develop spontaneously. A malfunction of the breathing centers in newborns may result in SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).
ALTITUDE SICKNESS: As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases. Above 10,000 feet decreased oxygen pressures causes loading of oxygen into hemoglobin to drop off, leading to lowered oxygen levels in the blood. The result can be mountain sickness (nausea and loss of appetite). Mountain sickness does not result from oxygen starvation but rather from the loss of carbon dioxide due to increased breathing in order to obtain more oxygen.