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Pulmonary System Anatomy and Physiology. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM MUST WORK CONTINOUSLY OR DEATH WILL OCCUR HOW MUCH O2 DO WE HAVE? FOUR TO SIX MINUTES SUPPLY.

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Presentation on theme: "Pulmonary System Anatomy and Physiology. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM MUST WORK CONTINOUSLY OR DEATH WILL OCCUR HOW MUCH O2 DO WE HAVE? FOUR TO SIX MINUTES SUPPLY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pulmonary System Anatomy and Physiology

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3 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM MUST WORK CONTINOUSLY OR DEATH WILL OCCUR HOW MUCH O2 DO WE HAVE? FOUR TO SIX MINUTES SUPPLY

4 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM NOSE PHARYNX LARYNX TRACHEA BRONCHI ALVEOLI LUNGS DIAPHRAM

5 Nasal Cavity Nostrils also known as anterior nares Beginning of respiratory tract Warms the air Filters the air Moistens the air

6 NASAL SEPTUM PARTITION OR WALL CARTILAGE DIVIDES THE NOSE INTO HOLLOW SPACES

7 CILIA TINY HAIRLIKE STRUCTURES IN NASAL CAVITY TRAPS DIRT TRAPS PATHOGENS TRAPPED PARTICLES PUSHED TOWARD ESOPHAGUS SWALLOWED

8 Sinuses Hollow cavities Short ducts connect the sinuses to the nasal cavity Mucous membrane lines the sinuses to help warm and moisten the air Also give resonance to the voice

9 Pharynx Commonly known as the “throat” Subdivided Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Both air AND food travel down the pharynx

10 Larynx Also know as the “voice box” Contain the vocal cords or folds Sound occurs when air leaves the lungs, passing through the vocal cords causing them to vibrate

11 Larynx Has 9 layers of cartilage The largest is called the thyroid cartilage or the Adam’s apple

12 Epiglottis Flap of cartilage lying behind the tongue and in front of the larynx At rest is upright and allows air to pass through the larynx to the lungs During swallowing it folds back over the larynx to prevent food and liquids from getting into the airway

13 Trachea Known as the “windpipe” Passes IN FRONT of the esophagus Continues down below the larynx Lined with cartilage rings to prevent it from collapsing

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15 Cilia Also in trachea Smoking is a constant irritation Smoking kills the cilia Leads to frequent infection and inflammation Triggers cough reflex and results in what we call the “smoker’s cough”

16 LUNGS Porous, spongy tissue Right lung is larger and broader than the left lung It has three lobes This is because the heart lies to the left and needs room Left lung, therefore, only has two lobes

17 PLEURA Thin, moist, slippery membrane of tough tissue cells Two layers Visceral covers just the lung Parietal covers lungs and diaphragm and lines the thoracic cavity Pleural Fluid fills the space between the two pleural membranes

18 Bronchi Lower end of trachea separates into the left and right bronchus

19 Bronchioles Bronchi subdivide into the bronchioles

20 Alveoli About 500 million alveoli in the adult lung This is 3x the amount needed to sustain life Inner surface are covered with a lipid substance called SURFACTANT Prevents alveoli from collapsing

21 Alveoli Site of gas exchange Covered with a network of blood capillaries Oxygen brought into the lungs flows into the capillaries Carbon dioxide created in the body flows out of the capillaries and is exhaled

22 Process of Breathing VENTILATION Mechanical process known as “breathing” Two phases called Inspiration and Expiration

23 Ventilation Inspiration Diaphragm contracts (moves downward) Intercostal muscles contract (pull ribs outward) Creates positive pressure and therefore air rushes into the lungs

24 Ventilation Expiration Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax (return to resting state) Returns to negative pressure state Air is forced out of the lungs

25 Fun Facts Hiccups Caused by a spasm of the diaphragm believed to be the result of an irritation Sneezing Air rushes out of your nose at a rate of 100 miles per second Some people have a “photic reflex” which makes them sneeze in response to a sudden, bright light Yawning A deep, prolonged breath believed to be caused by the need to increase oxygen in the blood

26 Respiration Chemical process where oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are exchanged There are three types External respiration Internal respiration Cellular respiration

27 Cellular Respiration Cells use Oxygen (O2) Nutrients (glucose) Cells produce Energy (ATP) Water (H2O) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

28 External Respiration Occurs in the lungs Between the alveoli and the blood stream Exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2)

29 Internal Respiration Occurs in the body Between the blood stream and tissue cells Exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2)

30 Control of the Respiratory Center Medulla oblongata controls respirations Located in the brain (lowest portion of the brain stem) Increased respirations occur if these things are happen Decreased oxygen (O2) in the blood stream Increased carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood stream

31 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ASTHMA

32 CAUSATIVE AGENTS SENSITIVITY TO AN ALLERGEN DUST POLLEN ANIMALS FOODS STRESS OVEREXERTION INFECTIONS

33 SYMPTOMS OCCUR BRONCHOSPAS MS NARROW OPENING OF BRONCHIOLES MUCUS PRODUCTION INCREASES EDEMA DEVELOPS IN MUCOSAL LINING

34 SYMPTOMS DYSPNEA WHEEZING COUGHING WITH EXPECTORATION OF SPUTUM TIGHTNESS IN CHEST

35 Treatment Bronchodilators (via rescue inhaler or nebulizer) Anti-inflammatory medications (steroids) Epinephrine O 2 Therapy

36 PREVENTING ASTHMA ATTACKS IDENTIFY ALLERGEN ELIMINATE ALLERGEN DESENSITIZATION TO ALLERGENS

37 BRONCHITIS INFLAMMATION BRONCHI BRONCHIAL TUBES

38 ACUTE BRONCHITIS CAUSED BY INFECTION SYMPTOMS PRODUCTIVE COUGH DYSPNEA CHEST PAIN FEVER

39 TREATMENT ANTIBIOTICS EXPECTORANTS TO REMOVE EXCESSIVE MUCOUS

40 CHRONIC BRONCHITIS OCCURS AFTER FREQUENT ATTACKS OF ACUTE BRONCHITIS LONG-TERM EXPOSURE TO POLLUTANTS OR SMOKING CHARACTERIZED BY CHRONIC INFLAMMATION DAMAGED CILIA ENLARGED MUCOUS GLANDS

41 SYMPTOMS EXCESSIVE MUCUS PRODUCTIVE COUGH WHEEZING & DYSPNEA CHEST PAIN PROLONGED EXPIRATION OF AIR

42 TREATMENT NO CURE ANTIBIOTICS BRONCHODILATORS RESPIRATORY THERAPY

43 LARYNGITIS INFLAMMATION LARYNX VOCAL CORDS MAY OCCUR WITH RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

44 SYMPTOMS HOARSENESS LOSS OF VOICE SORE THROAT DYSPHAGIA: DIFFICULTY IN SWALLOWING

45 TREATMENT REST FLUIDS LIMITED USE OF THE VOICE MEDICATIONS INFECTION IF PRESENT

46 INFLUENZA (FLU) CONTAGIOUS VIRAL INFECTION UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SUDDEN ONSET

47 SYMPTOMS CHILLS HIGH FEVER COUGH SORE THROAT RUNNY NOSE MUSCLE PAIN FATIGUE

48 TREATMENT BED REST FLUIDS ANALGESICS PAIN FEVER ANTIBIOTICS NOT EFFECTIVE AGAINST VIRUSES GIVEN TO AVOID SECONDARY INFECTIONS PNEUMONIA

49 EPISTAXIS NOSEBLEED CAPILLARIES IN NOSE BECOME CONGESTED AND BLEED

50 CAUSES INJURY OR BLOW TO NOSE HYPERTENSION CHRONIC INFECTIONS ANTICOAGULANT DRUGS BLOOD DISEASES HEMOPHILIA LEUKEMIA

51 TREATMENT COMPRESS NOSTRILS ELEVATE HEAD TILT FORWARD SLIGHTLY APPLY COLD COMPRESSES NASAL PACKS CAUTERIZE THE BLEEDING VESSEL ELIMINATE UNDERLYING CAUSE

52 PNEUMONIA INFLAMMATION INFECTION OF LUNGS BUILD UP OF EXUDATE IN ALVEOLI CAUSED BY BACTERIA, VIRUS, OR CHEMICALS

53 SYMPTOMS CHILLS FEVER CHEST PAIN PRODUCTIVE COUGH DYSPNEA FATIGUE

54 TREATMENT BEDREST FLUIDS ANTIBIOTICS IF INDICATED RESPIRATORY THERAPY PAIN MEDICATION

55 RHINITIS (URI) INFLAMMATION OF NASAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE RUNNY NOSE SORENESS CONGESTION

56 COMMON CAUSES INFECTIONS ALLERGENS

57 TREATMENT FLUIDS MEDICATION TO RELIEVE CONGESTION

58 SINUSITIS (URI) INFLAMMATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE LINING SINUSES CAUSED BY BACTERIA OR VIRUS

59 SYMPTOMS HEADACHE PRESSURE THICK NASAL DISCHARGE CONGESTION LOSS OF RESONANCE IN VOICE

60 TREATMENT ANALGESICS MEDICATIONS TO LOOSEN SECRETIONS MOIST INHALATIONS SURGERY CHRONIC SINUSITIS OPENS CAVITIES ENCOURAGE DRAINAGE

61 TREATMENT ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS DESTROY BACTERIA GOOD NUTRITION REST

62 TB TUBERCULOSIS INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF THE LUNGS CAUSED BY BACTERIA MYCOBACTERUIM TUBERCULOSIS

63 WHITE BLOOD CELLS MAY SURROUND INVADING TB ORGAMISMS WALL OFF CREATING A NODULE CALLED TUBERCLE ORGANISMS REMAIN DORMANT IN THE TUBERCLE CAN CAUSE ACTIVE CASE OF TB LATER IF BODY REISITANCE IS LOW

64 SYMPTOMS OF ACTIVE TB FATIGUE CHEST PAIN FEVER NIGHT SWEATS WEIGHT LOSS HEMOPTYSIS COUGHING UP BLOOD TINGED SPUTUM

65 Treatment Medications for one or more years to destroy the bacteria Good nutrition Rest * In recent years a new strain of the TB bacteria that is resistant to drug therapy has emerged causing concern that it will become a widespread infectious disease

66 EMPHYSEMA NONINFECTIOUS CHRONIC RESPIRATORY CONDITION WALLS OF THE ALVEOLI DETERIORATE LOSE ELASTICITY CARBON DIOXIDE REMAINS TRAPPED IN THE ALVEOLI POOR EXCHANGE OF GASES

67 CAUSE HEAVY SMOKING PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTANTS

68 TREATMENT NO CURE AVOID SMOKING BRONCHODILATORS PROMPT TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS OXYGEN THERAPY RESPIRATORY THERAPY

69 COPD INCLUDE DISORDERS SUCH AS ASTHMA CHRONIC BRONCHITIS EMPHYSEMA TB

70 CAUSES SMOKING IS THE PRIMARY CAUSE OTHER FACTORS INCLUDE ALLERGIES CHRONIC RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

71 SYMPTOMS DYSPNEA FEELING OF SUFFOCATION PAIN BARREL CHEST CHRONIC COUGH CYANOSIS RAPID RESPIRATIONS WITH PROLONGED EXPIRATION RESPIRATORY FALURE ……….DEATH

72 LUNG CANCER DIAGNOSIS- XRAY BRONCHOSCOPY (flexible tube passed through mouth or nose into bronchi and lungs) TREATMENT SURGERY CHEMOTHERAPY RADIATION

73 CAUSED BY USUALLY SMOKING

74 LUNG CANCER XRAYS

75 Diagnostic Tests Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) Bronchoscopy

76 Pulmonary Function Tests Check how well your lungs work Determine how much air your lungs can hold Determine how quickly you can move air in and out of your lungs Determine how well your lungs put oxygen into and remove carbon dioxide from your blood The tests can diagnose lung diseases, measure the severity of lung problems, and check to see how well treatment for a lung disease is working. Spirometry is the first and most commonly done lung function test. It measures how much and how quickly you can move air out of your lungs. For this test, you breathe into a mouthpiece attached to a recording device (spirometer). The information collected by the spirometer may be printed out on a chart called a spirogram.

77 Bronchoscopy Procedure that looks inside the lungs' airways A thin, flexible tube called a bronchoscope is inserted into the nose or mouth. The tube is passed down the throat into the airways Medicine is given for relaxation during the procedure. The bronchoscope has a light and small camera that allows the doctor to see the windpipe and airways and take pictures. If there is bleeding in the lungs or a large object stuck in the throat, a bronchoscope with a rigid tube would be used. The rigid tube, which is passed through the mouth, is wider. This allows the doctor to see inside it more easily, treat bleeding, and remove stuck objects. A rigid bronchoscopy usually is done in a hospital operating room using general anesthesia

78 Bronchoscopy


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