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Chapter 20: Digestive System Chapter 21: Urinary System.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20: Digestive System Chapter 21: Urinary System."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 20: Digestive System Chapter 21: Urinary System

3 Functions of Digestion Ingest food Break down food in to small molecules: Mechanical digestion- Chemical digestion – Absorption Elimination

4 Carbohydrates Include sugars and their polymers Monomer is the monosaccharide Include 3 – 7 carbons with the –OH group being present on each carbon except one, which is double bonded to an oxygen (carbonyl group)

5 Lipids A group of polymers that have one characteristic in common, they do not mix with water. They are hydrophobic. Some important groups are fats, phospholipids, and steroids.


7 Enzymes Increase speed of chemical reactions - catalyst A protein Can change shape if conditions are not favorable.

8 Alimentary Canal Hollow tube that begins at the mouth, ends at the anus Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum

9 A. Mouth Forms a bolus Chemical digestion – mucous, amylase (break down carbs) Mechanical digestion: chewing Roof of mouth: Hard palate Soft palate

10 Tongue and Taste Lingual frendulum – attaches tongue to floor of mouth Taste buds: Papillae: elevations on tongue

11 Salivary Glands Saliva – water mucous, amalase Parotid – front of and below ears. (mumps) Sublingual submandibular

12 B.Pharynx Region between mouth and esophagus “throat” Function – swallowing Epiglottis – blocks larynx Uvula – back of throat

13 C. Esophagus 3. Lined by mucous membrane and smooth muscle 4. Peristalsis – involuntary contraction of esophagus Peristalsis 5. Heartburn – (acid reflux) Heartburn

14 Esophagus Continued

15 D. Stomach Stores food and digests protein Rugae – folds inside stomach Ulcers

16 Stomach Continued Gastric Juice – produces Chyme Pepsin – enzyme that digests protein HCL – kills bacteria, breaks down food, Intrinsic factor – absorption of B12. Mucous – softens food Gastrin – hormone that causes gastric juice to be released.

17 E. Small IntestineSmall Intestine Function- receives secretions from the liver, pancreas and absorption of nutrients. Lined with Villi – furry looking, absorption, increase surface area

18 F. Large IntestineLarge Intestine Function – absorb water, produce feces E.coli bacteria present

19 Disorders of Large Intestine Diarrhea – Constipation – Appendicitis – Diverticuloisis – colon cancer Colonoscopy

20 Part 2: Digestive System Accessory organs – food does not pass through

21 1. Pancreas Secretes Sodium Bicarbonate and enzymes to digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

22 2. Liver – Largest gland Storage of glucose as glycogen Destruction of old red blood cells – this creates bilirubin Production of bile Plasma proteins Detoxification of blood Storage of iron and other vitamins

23 Liver Lobule Anatomy Functional unit of the liver. Blood travels from small intestine – hepatic portal vein – to various liver lobules.


25 3. Liver Disorders Hepatitis – inflammation of the liver due to contaminated drinking water, sexual transmission, or blood transfusion

26 Cirrhosis of liver Cirrhosis – chronic disease due to excessive amount of alcohol. Liver becomes fatty tissue.

27 Jaundice Jaundice – yellowish tint due to large amounts of bilirubin in blood.

28 C. Gallbladder Storage of bile – emulsifies fats and neutralize acids

29 Chapter 21 Excretory system

30 Structures of Urinary System 1. 2 kidneys 2. 2 ureters – tube that leads to bladder 3. Bladder – stores urine 4. Urethra – tube for eliminating urine

31 Structure of Kidney Renal cortex – outer layer, filtration Renal medulla – middle layer, filtration, absorption Renal pelvis – urine collection and transport Renal artery - Renal vein -

32 Functions of Kidney I.

33 Kidney Function – filter blood that has collected wastes from cells. A. Excrete waste – urea, uric acid, creatine, ammonium B. Maintain blood volume – regulating water excretion C. monitor electrolytes in blood D. monitor blood pH E. secrete Renin – enzyme to help maintain blood pressure F. stimulates red blood cell production


35 Lipids A group of polymers that have one characteristic in common, they do not mix with water. They are hydrophobic. Some important groups are fats, phospholipids, and steroids.

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