Goblet cells make mucous (so we don’t digest ourselves!)
Stretching your stomach causes GASTRIN (hormone) release for Hydrochloric Acid to get released from parietal cells
Chief Cells produce all types of enzymes for proteins and carbodydrates (proteases/amylases)
Gastrin: an endocrine hormone in stomach lining which when stomach stretches it tells other stomach lining glands to produce hydrochloric acid, parietal cells. (G cells) Goblet cells produce mucous to protect stomach lining Chief cells produce protein, fat and CH enzymes
Intrinsic factor is also in the lining of the stomach What does intrinsic factor do?
It absorbs extrinsic factor AKA vitamin B12 which does what?
Vitamin B12)necessary to the maturation of RBC’s Who can’t produce intrinsic factor and what disease do they commonly develop?
Pernicious anemia; a type of anemia common among the elderly. Taking more vitamin B12 won’t help them if they can no longer produce intrinsic factor so…..they need B12 shots weekly to keep their energy levels up.
Duodenum U shaped Bile duct and pancreatic duct empty here Bile from liver for fat emulsification Pancreatic juice (Exocrine pancreas) for food digestion.
Duodenum (first part of intestines
Digestion We require carbon based foods to provide fuel for our energy production Fats, carbohydrates and proteins are all energy sources We convert food to energy (ATP) and excrete water, wastes both liquid and solids.
What is the process of breaking down foods readying them for absorption into the blood called? What is the cellular process of further utilizing food products to produce energy?
The Alimentary Canal Long muscular canal from the mouth to the anus. Includes the mouth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, large intestine, rectum, anus Mucous lined, produces enzymes, absorbs nutrients and vitamins and water and minerals Expels waste products of digestion and metabolism
How is the digestive system innervated (stimulated neurologically): CNS or the ANS? Which nervous system specifically stimulates it and which inhibits it?
Autonomic NS: the parasympathetic stimulates the digestive system while the sympathetic system inhibits it. What would you get if you are under stress and try to eat at the same time?
Gas, indigestion, ulcers
What enzymes are produced in the stomach lining? What can the stomach absorb?
Name three causes of GERDS
alcohol use overweight pregnancy smokingAlso, certain foods can be associated with reflux events, including: citrus fruits chocolate drinks with caffeine fatty and fried foods garlic and onions mint flavorings spicy foods tomato-based foods, like spaghetti sauce, chili, and pizza alcohol use overweight pregnancy smokingAlso, certain foods can be associated with reflux events, including: citrus fruits chocolate drinks with caffeine fatty and fried foods garlic and onions mint flavorings spicy foods tomato-based foods, like spaghetti sauce, chili, and pizza
Hiatal hernia in endoscope
Longitudinal and annular sm. Mm.
Small Intestine Jejunum(proximal 2/3’s of sm. int. and Ileum (distal 1/3 of sm. Int.) 24 feet long Only small in diameter For food absorbtion (CH, fats, proteins) Villi with crypts of Lieberkuhn between Lacteals Peristalsis
Duodenum Has a hormone in the lining of its wall called cholecystekinin which stimulates the bile duct to squirt bile into the duodenum. What is bile for?
It’s an emulsifying agent (like soap) which mixes fats in your food in the duodenum with water soluble enzymes to digest them called lipases. The pancreas also releases an endocrine hormone into the duodenum named?
Insulin; insulin allows sugars/starches (carbohydrates) to move across the walls of your blood vessels to get out of your blood and into your cells for metabolizing No insulin means diabetes mellitus
What are the valleys in between the villi called?
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Large Intestine (colon) Primarily for water absorbtion Produces feces from residues of digestion Appendix Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid leading to rectum and anus
Herpes Herpes Simplex (cold sores or fever blisters) but also causes genital herpes. Both are contagious, episodic, painful, lifelong, rapidly growing in our population and worldwide, 45 million in U.S. alone Tx.:Valtrex, Zovirax, Acyclovir antivirals; keep it dormant, no cure Herpes Zoster (shingles; re-awakened chickenpox in the elderly)
Cold Sore/fever blister
Herpes Usually self limiting to the victim and with medications and good health, sometimes never recur BUT Are contagious even when no lesions visable and also after lesions remit they are spread by shedding skin tissue! High stress and poor health make them pop out again!
Adenoma (polyp) easily removed during colonoscopy
Early colonoscopy after age 50 every five yrs Colon cancer is slow, takes tens years to convert a benign adenoma (polyp) to a terminal malignant carcinoma One of the few cancers that is preventable and yet is the third most fatal after lung, breast/prostate CA for most in U.S. don’t get colonoscopy
Cholecystitis (inflamed gall bladder with stones) FFFF
Liver Vital organ which: produces our proteins, antibodies, hormones, stores sugar in the form of glycogen, is our main detoxifying organ, makes clotting factors for blood (prothrombin/fibrinogen), cleans up dead blood cells, makes bile for the emulsification of fats, and produces 80% of our cholesterol!! That’s why high blood cholesterol runs in families. Out diet only controls 20% of our blood’s cholesterol.
Hepatitis Infection/inflammation of the liver. Various causes: Toxins like ethanol consumption leading to cirrhosis (fatty and scarred liver) and various viral infections. Symptoms: malaise, jaundice from excess bilirubin from failure of liver to cleanup old hemoglobin),loss of appetite.
Viral Hepatitis Type A: fecal-oral route of transmission, contaminated foods, mainly third world countries and day care centers, poor hygiene, shellfish,acute and self limiting, bed rest Type B:Blood borne only; drug addicts sharing needles, doctors/nurses at risk and STP; transmitted by exchanging fluids by sex; Vaccine for all health care workers effective, Chronic Hep B leads to cirrhosis/liver CA
Type C Hepatitis the silent liver killer! No symptoms for decades Blood borne Contagious by fluid exchange, needs, SEX Most common blood borne disease in the U.S. but most victims don’t know they have it until cirrhosis has almost destroyed all of their liver; transplant needed No vaccine available
Ulcerative Colitis (Crohn’s Disease) Genetic Autoimmune Episodic irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Treated with anti-inflammatories and surgery Colostomy