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Tissues are: Tissues are: Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions Collections of specialized.

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Presentation on theme: "Tissues are: Tissues are: Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions Collections of specialized."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tissues are: Tissues are: Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions Histology = study of tissues Histology = study of tissues The four tissue types are: The four tissue types are: Epithelial Epithelial Connective Connective Muscular Muscular Nervous Nervous Tissues and tissue types

2 Includes glands and epithelium Includes glands and epithelium Glands are secretory Glands are secretory Is avascular Is avascular Forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability Forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability Cells may show polarity Cells may show polarity Epithelial tissue

3 Physical protection Physical protection Control permeability Control permeability Provide sensation Provide sensation Produce specialized secretions Produce specialized secretions Functions of epithelium

4 Perform secretory functions Perform secretory functions Perform transport functions Perform transport functions Maintain physical integrity Maintain physical integrity Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface Specializations of epithelium

5 The Polarity of Epithelial Cells

6 Cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (CAM) Cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (CAM) Cells attach at specialized cell junctions Cells attach at specialized cell junctions Tight junctions Tight junctions Desmosomes Desmosomes Gap junctions Gap junctions Maintaining the integrity of epithelium

7 Intercellular connections

8 Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface Lamina lucida Lamina lucida Lamina densa Lamina densa Germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells Germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells Structure of typical epithelium

9 Number of cell layers Number of cell layers Simple Simple Stratified Stratified Shape of apical surface cells Shape of apical surface cells Squamous Squamous Cuboidal Cuboidal Columnar Columnar Classification of epithelia

10 Squamous Epithelia

11 Cuboidal Epithelia

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13 Transitional Epithelium

14 Columnar Epithelia

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18 Exocrine glands Exocrine glands Secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland Secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland Endocrine glands Endocrine glands Release hormones into surrounding fluid Release hormones into surrounding fluid Glandular epithelia

19 Merocrine (product released through exocytosis) Merocrine (product released through exocytosis) Apocrine (involves the loss of both product and cytoplasm) Apocrine (involves the loss of both product and cytoplasm) Holocrine (destroys the cell) Holocrine (destroys the cell) Glandular secretions can be:

20 Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion

21 Unicellular Unicellular Individual secretory cells Individual secretory cells Multicellular Multicellular Organs containing glandular epithelium Organs containing glandular epithelium Classified according to structure Classified according to structure Glands

22 A Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands

23 Establishing a structural framework Establishing a structural framework Transporting fluids and dissolved materials Transporting fluids and dissolved materials Protecting delicate organs Protecting delicate organs Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting tissues Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting tissues Storing energy reserves Storing energy reserves Defending the body from microorganisms Defending the body from microorganisms Connective tissue functions:

24 A Classification of Connective Tissues

25 Specialized cells Specialized cells Matrix Matrix Composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance Composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance Connective tissues contain

26 Contains varied cell populations Contains varied cell populations Contains various fiber types Contains various fiber types A syrupy ground substance A syrupy ground substance Connective tissue proper

27 Fluid connective tissue Contains a distinctive cell population Contains a distinctive cell population Watery ground substance with dissolved proteins Watery ground substance with dissolved proteins Two types Two types Blood Blood Lymph Lymph

28 Less diverse cell population Less diverse cell population Dense ground substance Dense ground substance Closely packed fibers Closely packed fibers Two types Two types Cartilage Cartilage Bone Bone Supporting connective tissues

29 Contains fibers, a viscous ground substance, and a varied cell population Contains fibers, a viscous ground substance, and a varied cell population Fibroblasts Fibroblasts Macrophage Macrophage Adipocytes Adipocytes Mesenchymal cells Mesenchymal cells Melanocytes Melanocytes Mast cells Mast cells Lymphocytes Lymphocytes Microphages Microphages Connective tissue proper

30 Three types of fiber Three types of fiber Collagen fibers Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Elastic fibers Connective tissue proper

31 Classified as loose or dense Classified as loose or dense Loose Loose Embryonic mesenchyme, mucous connective tissues Embryonic mesenchyme, mucous connective tissues Areolar tissue Areolar tissue Adipose tissue Adipose tissue Reticular tissue Reticular tissue Dense Dense Dense regular CT Dense regular CT Dense irregular CT Dense irregular CT Connective tissue proper

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33 The Cells and Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper

34 Connective Tissue in Embryos

35 Adipose and Reticular Tissues

36 Dense Connective Tissues

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39 Distinctive collections of cells in a fluid matrix Distinctive collections of cells in a fluid matrix Blood Blood Formed elements and plasma Formed elements and plasma Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets Arteries carry blood away, veins carry to the heart Arteries carry blood away, veins carry to the heart Capillaries allow diffusion into the interstitial fluid Capillaries allow diffusion into the interstitial fluid Lymph Lymph Interstitial fluid entering the lymphatic vessels Interstitial fluid entering the lymphatic vessels Fluid connective tissues

40 Formed Elements of the Blood

41 Cartilage and bone support the rest of the body Cartilage and bone support the rest of the body Cartilage Cartilage Grows via interstitial and appositional growth Grows via interstitial and appositional growth Matrix is a firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate Matrix is a firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate Cells called chondrocytes Cells called chondrocytes Cells found in lacunae Cells found in lacunae Perichondrium separates cartilage from surrounding tissues Perichondrium separates cartilage from surrounding tissues Three types: hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage Three types: hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage Supporting connective tissues

42 The Perichondrium and Types of Cartilage

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45 Has osteocytes Has osteocytes Depend on diffusion through canaliculi for nutrients Depend on diffusion through canaliculi for nutrients Little ground substance Little ground substance Dense mineralized matrix Dense mineralized matrix Surrounded by periosteum Surrounded by periosteum Bone, or osseus tissue

46 Bone

47 Form a barrier Form a barrier Composed of epithelium and connective tissue Composed of epithelium and connective tissue Four types Four types Cutaneous Cutaneous Synovial Synovial Serous Serous Mucous Mucous Membranes are simple organs

48 Membranes

49 Line cavities that communicate with the exterior Line cavities that communicate with the exterior Contain lamina propria Contain lamina propria Mucous membranes

50 Line sealed internal cavities Line sealed internal cavities Form transudate Form transudate Serous membranes

51 Cutaneous membrane Cutaneous membrane Covers the body surface Covers the body surface Synovial membrane Synovial membrane Incomplete lining within joint cavities Incomplete lining within joint cavities

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53 Network of connective tissue proper consisting of Network of connective tissue proper consisting of Superficial fascia Superficial fascia Deep fascia Deep fascia Subserous fascia Subserous fascia Organs and systems are interconnected

54 The Fasciae

55 Specialized for contraction Specialized for contraction Three types Three types Skeletal Skeletal Cardiac Cardiac Smooth Smooth Muscle tissue

56 Muscle Tissue

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59 Cells are multinucleate Cells are multinucleate Striated voluntary muscle Striated voluntary muscle Divides via satellite cells Divides via satellite cells Skeletal muscle

60 Cardiocytes occur only in the heart Cardiocytes occur only in the heart Striated involuntary muscle Striated involuntary muscle Relies on pacemaker cells for regular contraction Relies on pacemaker cells for regular contraction Cardiac muscle

61 Non-striated involuntary muscle Non-striated involuntary muscle Can divide and regenerate Can divide and regenerate Smooth muscle tissue

62 Conducts electrical impulses Conducts electrical impulses Conveys information from one area to another Conveys information from one area to another Neural tissue

63 Neurons Neurons Transmit information Transmit information Neuroglia Neuroglia Support neural tissue Support neural tissue Help supply nutrients to neurons Help supply nutrients to neurons Neural tissue cells

64 Neural Tissue

65 Cell body Cell body Dendrites Dendrites Axon (nerve fiber) Axon (nerve fiber) Carries information to other neurons Carries information to other neurons Neural anatomy

66 Injured tissues respond in coordinated fashion Injured tissues respond in coordinated fashion Homeostasis restored by inflammation and regeneration Homeostasis restored by inflammation and regeneration Inflammation and regeneration

67 Isolates injured area Isolates injured area Damaged cells, tissue components and dangerous microorganisms removed Damaged cells, tissue components and dangerous microorganisms removed Infection avoided Infection avoided Regeneration restores normal function Regeneration restores normal function Inflammatory response

68 An Introduction to Inflammation

69 Change with age Change with age Repair and maintenance less efficient Repair and maintenance less efficient Structure altered Structure altered Chemical composition altered Chemical composition altered Aging and tissue repair

70 Aging and cancer incidence Incidence of cancer increases with age Incidence of cancer increases with age 70-80% of all cases due to exposure to chemicals or environmental factors 70-80% of all cases due to exposure to chemicals or environmental factors

71 Changes in a Tissue under Stress


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