Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx"— Presentation transcript:

1 HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx
Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat Nasal Cavity and Breathing Mouth and Chewing Throat and Swallowing Larynx and Singing

2 Sagittal Section Head Cranial cavity Brain/Spinal cord
Vertebral bodies Epaxial muscles Hard/soft palate Oral cavity Esophagus Trachea Epiglottis Naso- Oro- Laringo- pharynx

3 Nose/Nasal Cavity and Breathing
Function: Inlet for air to lung Warm/filter air (mucous membranes on ethmoid conchae) Smell (nerve endings on nasal membranes)

4 Conchae of Ethmoid Bone
Scroll-like bones Covered in mucous membrane for Smell Filter air Warm air

5 Sinuses All connected to nasal cavity All lined with mucous membranes
Cold/allergies—fill with mucous=sinus headache Maxillary Ethmoid Frontal Sphenoid M&M, Fig. 7.11

6 Mouth/Oral Cavity and Chewing
FUNCTION Bite and chew food Form words Taste Kiss COMPONENTS Lips Cheeks Palate Jaws and teeth Salivary glands Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium (almost no keratin) Vestibule—in front of teeth Oral cavity proper—behind teeth

7 Lips FUNCTION Close mouth Keep food in Make speech sounds Tactile
STRUCTURE Core of sphinchter-shape skeletal muscle (orbicularis oris) “Red margin” transition from keratinized skin to oral mucosa Red because clear color lets underlying vessels show through No sweat or sebaceous glands, thus needs to be wet (or lip balm) Lips

8 Cheeks FUNCTION Form side of moth STRUCTURE
Buccinator muscle— instrumental in swallowing, connects back to pharyngeal constrictors

9 Palate Hard palate anterior
Maxilla Palatine Soft palate is posterior extension, soft tissue Palatoglossal arch (palate to tongue) Palatopharyngeal arch (palate to pharynx) Tonsils between arches Uvula…???

10 Jaws FUNCTION Hold teeth Occlude in chewing STRUCTURE
Upper jaw—maxillary bone Lower jaw--mandible

11 Teeth Key to healthy teeth and gums: Flossing
Deciduous teeth—”milk” or “baby” teeth Emerge 6 mos. – 2 yrs. Replaced by permanent teeth 6-12 yrs. Wisdom teeth (3rd molar) erupts yrs or remains in jaw Key to healthy teeth and gums: Flossing Visiting dentist regularly (every 6 mos.) and starting at young age (3-4 yrs.)

12 Structure of individual tooth—it’s alive!!

13 Jaw muscles Masseter, temporalis— elevate mandible (“close jaw”)
Medial pterygoid—lateral (side-to-side) chewing Lateral pterygoid—translates mandible anteriorly (part of opening) Digastric (not shown)— depresses mandible (“opens jaw”) Chewing is circular motion

14 Tongue FUNCTION Position food between teeth Form words in speech
STRUCTURE Intrinsic muscles (allow for shape change with fibers in various directions) Extrinsic muscles— attach tongue to skeleton Genioglossus Hyoglossus

15 Salivary glands Intrinsic—all over mucous membranes of tongue, palate, lips, lining of cheek Extrinsic—secrete more saliva when eating (or anticipating) Parotid Submandibular Sublingual

16 Saliva Moistens mouth Dissolves food to be tasted Wets and binds food
Contains amylase to start starch digestion (saltine to sugar experiment) Contains bicarbonate to neutralize cavity-causing acids produced by bacteria Contains anti-bacterial and anti-viral enzymes and cyanide-like compound to kill harmful micro- organisms Contains proteins that stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the mouth

17 Throat/Pharynx and Swallowing
Back of mouth to larynx Food and air mix and cross Food PHARYNX Air Trachea Esophagus STRUCTURES Entry—pharyngeal arches Exit—glottis (epiglottis is lid) Pharyngeal constrictors squeeze food through When it goes wrong—choking!!

18 Pharynx and Swallowing
Focus on muscles and arrangement of mouth cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, trachea Pharynx/Swallowing in detail!!

19 Descent of the larynx

20 Larynx and Singing FUNCTION Channel air out of trachea
Vibrate to produce sound for speech/song STRUCTURES External skeleton or frame (cartilage) Internal vocal cords and associated muscles

21 Skeleton of larynx M&M, Fig. 21.5 Cricothyroid ligament is usual site of emergency tracheotomy (feel on self—SURFACE ANATOMY)

22 Vocal cords M&M, Fig. 21.6

Download ppt "HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google