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HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat Nasal Cavity and Breathing Mouth and Chewing Throat and Swallowing Larynx and.

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Presentation on theme: "HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat Nasal Cavity and Breathing Mouth and Chewing Throat and Swallowing Larynx and."— Presentation transcript:

1 HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat Nasal Cavity and Breathing Mouth and Chewing Throat and Swallowing Larynx and Singing

2 Sagittal Section Head Cranial cavity Brain/Spinal cord Vertebral bodies Epaxial muscles Hard/soft palate Oral cavity Esophagus Trachea Epiglottis Naso- Oro- Laringo- pharynx

3 Nose/Nasal Cavity and Breathing Function: Inlet for air to lung Warm/filter air (mucous membranes on ethmoid conchae) Smell (nerve endings on nasal membranes)

4 Conchae of Ethmoid Bone Scroll-like bones Covered in mucous membrane for –Smell –Filter air –Warm air

5 Sinuses All connected to nasal cavity All lined with mucous membranes Cold/allergies—fill with mucous=sinus headache Maxillary Ethmoid Frontal Sphenoid M&M, Fig. 7.11

6 Mouth/Oral Cavity and Chewing COMPONENTS Lips Cheeks Palate Jaws and teeth Salivary glands FUNCTION Bite and chew food Form words Taste Kiss Vestibule—in front of teeth Oral cavity proper—behind teeth Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium (almost no keratin)

7 Lips FUNCTION Close mouth Keep food in Make speech sounds Tactile STRUCTURE Core of sphinchter-shape skeletal muscle (orbicularis oris) “Red margin” transition from keratinized skin to oral mucosa –Red because clear color lets underlying vessels show through –No sweat or sebaceous glands, thus needs to be wet (or lip balm)

8 Cheeks FUNCTION Form side of moth STRUCTURE Buccinator muscle— instrumental in swallowing, connects back to pharyngeal constrictors

9 Palate Hard palate anterior –Maxilla –Palatine Soft palate is posterior extension, soft tissue Palatoglossal arch (palate to tongue) Palatopharyngeal arch (palate to pharynx) Tonsils between arches Uvula…???

10 Jaws FUNCTION Hold teeth Occlude in chewing STRUCTURE Upper jaw—maxillary bone Lower jaw--mandible

11 Teeth Deciduous teeth—”milk” or “baby” teeth Emerge 6 mos. – 2 yrs. Replaced by permanent teeth 6-12 yrs. Wisdom teeth (3 rd molar) erupts yrs or remains in jaw Key to healthy teeth and gums: Flossing Visiting dentist regularly (every 6 mos.) and starting at young age (3-4 yrs.)

12 Structure of individual tooth—it’s alive!!

13 Jaw muscles Masseter, temporalis— elevate mandible (“close jaw”) Medial pterygoid—lateral (side-to-side) chewing Lateral pterygoid—translates mandible anteriorly (part of opening) Digastric (not shown)— depresses mandible (“opens jaw”) Chewing is circular motion

14 Tongue FUNCTION Position food between teeth Form words in speech STRUCTURE Intrinsic muscles (allow for shape change with fibers in various directions) Extrinsic muscles— attach tongue to skeleton –Genioglossus –Hyoglossus

15 Salivary glands Intrinsic—all over mucous membranes of tongue, palate, lips, lining of cheek Extrinsic—secrete more saliva when eating (or anticipating) –Parotid –Submandibular –Sublingual

16 Saliva Moistens mouth Dissolves food to be tasted Wets and binds food Contains amylase to start starch digestion (saltine to sugar experiment) Contains bicarbonate to neutralize cavity-causing acids produced by bacteria Contains anti-bacterial and anti-viral enzymes and cyanide-like compound to kill harmful micro- organisms Contains proteins that stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the mouth

17 Throat/Pharynx and Swallowing Back of mouth to larynx Food and air mix and cross When it goes wrong—choking!! Food PHARYNX Air Trachea Esophagus STRUCTURES Entry—pharyngeal arches Exit—glottis (epiglottis is lid) Pharyngeal constrictors squeeze food through

18 Pharynx and Swallowing Focus on muscles and arrangement of mouth cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, trachea Pharynx/Swallowing in detail!!

19 Descent of the larynx

20 Larynx and Singing FUNCTION Channel air out of trachea Vibrate to produce sound for speech/song STRUCTURES External skeleton or frame (cartilage) Internal vocal cords and associated muscles

21 Skeleton of larynx Cricothyroid ligament is usual site of emergency tracheotomy (feel on self—SURFACE ANATOMY) M&M, Fig. 21.5

22 Vocal cords M&M, Fig. 21.6


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