3Nose/Nasal Cavity and Breathing Function:Inlet for air to lungWarm/filter air(mucous membranes on ethmoid conchae)Smell(nerve endings on nasal membranes)
4Conchae of Ethmoid Bone Scroll-like bonesCovered in mucous membrane forSmellFilter airWarm air
5Sinuses All connected to nasal cavity All lined with mucous membranes Cold/allergies—fill with mucous=sinus headacheMaxillaryEthmoidFrontalSphenoidM&M, Fig. 7.11
6Mouth/Oral Cavity and Chewing FUNCTIONBite and chew foodForm wordsTasteKissCOMPONENTSLipsCheeksPalateJaws and teethSalivary glandsLined by thick stratified squamous epithelium (almost no keratin)Vestibule—in front of teethOral cavity proper—behind teeth
7Lips FUNCTION Close mouth Keep food in Make speech sounds Tactile STRUCTURECore of sphinchter-shape skeletal muscle (orbicularis oris)“Red margin” transition from keratinized skin to oral mucosaRed because clear color lets underlying vessels show throughNo sweat or sebaceous glands, thus needs to be wet (or lip balm)Lips
8Cheeks FUNCTION Form side of moth STRUCTURE Buccinator muscle— instrumental in swallowing, connects back to pharyngeal constrictors
9Palate Hard palate anterior MaxillaPalatineSoft palate is posterior extension, soft tissuePalatoglossal arch(palate to tongue)Palatopharyngeal arch(palate to pharynx)Tonsils between archesUvula…???
10Jaws FUNCTION Hold teeth Occlude in chewing STRUCTURE Upper jaw—maxillary boneLower jaw--mandible
11Teeth Key to healthy teeth and gums: Flossing Deciduous teeth—”milk” or “baby” teethEmerge 6 mos. – 2 yrs.Replaced by permanent teeth 6-12 yrs.Wisdom teeth (3rd molar) erupts yrs or remains in jawKey to healthy teeth and gums:FlossingVisiting dentist regularly (every 6 mos.) and starting at young age (3-4 yrs.)
14Tongue FUNCTION Position food between teeth Form words in speech STRUCTUREIntrinsic muscles (allow for shape change with fibers in various directions)Extrinsic muscles— attach tongue to skeletonGenioglossusHyoglossus
15Salivary glandsIntrinsic—all over mucous membranes of tongue, palate, lips, lining of cheekExtrinsic—secrete more saliva when eating (or anticipating)ParotidSubmandibularSublingual
16Saliva Moistens mouth Dissolves food to be tasted Wets and binds food Contains amylase to start starch digestion (saltine to sugar experiment)Contains bicarbonate to neutralize cavity-causing acids produced by bacteriaContains anti-bacterial and anti-viral enzymes and cyanide-like compound to kill harmful micro- organismsContains proteins that stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the mouth
17Throat/Pharynx and Swallowing Back of mouth to larynxFood and air mix and crossFoodPHARYNXAirTracheaEsophagusSTRUCTURESEntry—pharyngeal archesExit—glottis (epiglottis is lid)Pharyngeal constrictors squeeze food throughWhen it goes wrong—choking!!
18Pharynx and Swallowing Focus on muscles and arrangement of mouth cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, tracheaPharynx/Swallowing in detail!!