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RESPIRATORY DISEASES PPT HEK SCIENCE DEPT. HEALTHYHEALTHY LUNGLUNG.

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Presentation on theme: "RESPIRATORY DISEASES PPT HEK SCIENCE DEPT. HEALTHYHEALTHY LUNGLUNG."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESPIRATORY DISEASES PPT HEK SCIENCE DEPT

2 HEALTHYHEALTHY LUNGLUNG

3 ASTHMA BRONCHITIS EMPHYSEMA PNEUMONIA ASP. PNEUMONIA CYSTIC FIBROSIS PNEUMOCONIOSIS ARDS PUL EMBOLISM PUL INFARCT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

4 COPDCOPD ASTHMA BRONCHITIS EMPHYSEMA

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6 ASTHMA A CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY LUNG DISEASE WITH: OBSTRUCTION, INFLAMMATION AND HYPER-RESPONSIVENESS. SYMPTOMS: WHEEZING, DYSPNEA, COUGH AND MUCOID SPUTUM. CAUSE IS NOT KNOWN BUT INVOLVES CONTRACTION OF MUSCLES, MUCUS AND SWELLING OF AIRWAYS.

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11 IgE attaches to mast and basophil cells Plasma cell IgE Allergens:dust pollen, foods. Next time allergens enter the body they are attracted to IgE on mast cells and cause a release of histamine which causes bronchoconstriction and vasodilatation. Allergic reaction: = Release of histamine antigens

12 ASTHMA SYMPTOMS WHEEZING CYANOSIS IRRITABLE RESP RATE SWEATING O2 SAT<90-92% UNABLE TO TALK MORE THAN A FEW WORDS AT A TIME.

13 PEAK FLOW TEST PEFR: PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE A DROP IN % IS INDICATION OF A SEVERE ATTACK.

14 TREATMENT BETA-ADRENERGIC AGENTS - CAUSE BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE RELAXATION AND INHIBITION OF INFLAMMATORY CELLS, SUBSTANCES. (Albuterol). THEOPHYLLINE – BRONCHODILATOR. ORIGINALLY DERIVED FROM TEA LEAVES. CORTICOSTEROIDS - REDUCE INFLAMMATION. O2 THERAPY ANTIBIOTICS FOR SEC INFECTION.

15 BRONCHITIS INFLAMMATION OF THE BRONCHI. OFTEN FOLLOWS A COLD OR ANY INFECTION OF NOSE AND THROAT. AGGRAVATED BY SMOKING OR SMOKE, DUST AND CHEMICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

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17 BRONCHITIS SYMPTOMS COUGH WORSE IN AM WITH CLEAR MUCOUS SPUTUM. BECOMES THICKER YELLOW IF INFECTION OCCURS FEVER SUGGESTS BACTERIAL INFECTION.

18 BRONCHIAL GLAND WITH EXCESS MUCOUS MUCOUS PLUG

19 BRONCHITIS TREATMENT REST FLUIDS ANTIPYRETIC FOR FEVERS ANTIBIOTICS FOR PURULENT SPUTUM WHEN HIGH FEVER PERSISTS.

20 EMPHYSEMA CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE IN WHICH AIR SACS DEGENERATE UNTIL ELASTIC FIBERS ARE DESTROYED. LEADS TO A DECREASE IN LUNG ELASTICITY, RESULTING IN ACCUMULATION OF CO2 IN THE LUNGS POST EXHALATION.

21 EMPHYSEMA CAUSES AN OVER-INFLATION OF THE ALVEOLI RESULTING FROM A BREAKDOWN OF THE WALLS WITH DECREASED RESPIRATORY FUNCTION.

22 DAMAGE TO ALVEOLI IS IRREVERSIBLE AND RESULTS IN HOLES AND BULLAE IN LUNG TISSUE BULLAE MOTH-EATEN APPEARANCE

23 ETIOLOGY SMOKING ADV. STAGE OF BRONCHITIS MAY FOLLOW ASTHMA AND TB ATT-ALPHA 1- ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY RELATED EMPHYSEMA

24 HOW SERIOUS IS EMPHYSEMA? 2.8 MILLION AMERICANS RANKS 15th AMONG CHRONIC CONDITIONS TO ACTIVITY LIMITATIONS MEN HAVE HIGHER RATES 53% HIGHER THAN FEMALES

25 SYMPTOMS INCREASING SOB COUGH SPUTUM PRODUCTION PROLONGED EXPIRATION ANOREXIA WT LOSS MALAISE

26 SMOKERS LUNG

27 OLD PULMONARY FUNCTION TEST

28 MODERN PFT

29 TREATMENT NO CURE STOP SMOKING BRONCHODILATOR DRUGS ANTIBIOTICS TREAT WITH A1P1 FOR THOSE WHO HAVE DEFICIENCY LUNG TRANSPLANT LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION BREATHING EXERCISES & PD

30 EMPHYSEMA PATIENT

31 BARREL CHEST

32 PERCUSSION

33 ARDS A FAILURE OF THE RESP SYS BY FLUID ACCUMULATION WITHIN THE LUNGS THAT CAUSE THEM TO STIFFEN. CAUSES BLOOD VESSELS TO “LEAK” INTO THE LUNGS ETIOLOGIES: TRAUMA, SHOCK, BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS, HEAD INJURY, SMOKE INHALATION AND NEAR DROWNING. UPON XRAY LUNGS BECOME WHITED- OUT

34 ARDS SYMPTOMS &TREATMENT RAPID BREATHING NASAL FLARING CYANOSIS DYSPNEA ANXIETY AND STRESS APNEA AT TIMES RALES, RHONCHI AND WHEEZES SURVIVAL RATE IS 50% WITH 90% HAVINGA CARDIAC ARREST O2 AT 100% IS ADMINISTERED INTUBATION AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION MEDS TO REDUCE INFLAMMATION

35 ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA

36 ABNORMAL ENTRY OF FLUIDS: VOMIT, BILE, ACIDS INTO THE LUNGS. TAKES COURSE SIMILAR TO ARDS SAME TYPE OF TREATMENT IS REQUIRED TO GIVE RESPIRATORY SUPPORT WITH O2 AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION. FREQUENT SUCTIONING IS DONE EARLY IN THE COURSE OF TREATMENT. ANTIBIOTICS FOR ANAEROBIC BACTERIA

37 PNEUMONIA INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS DUE TO BACT, VIRUSES OR CHEM IRRITANTS MOST COMMON TYPE IS BACT PNEUMONIA FROM STREP. PNEUMONIAE OCCURS WHEN THE BODY IS WEAKENED FROM ILLNESS, MALNUTRITION, OLD AGE

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39 SYMPTOMS CHILLS, HIGH FEVER CHEST PAIN PRUNE COLORED SPUTUM SWEATING RAPID PULSE AND BREATHING CYANOSIS CONFUSED MENTAL STATE.

40 TREATMENT : ANTIBIOTICS, O2, NEBULIZER, POSTURAL DRAINAGE, NUTRITION, FLUIDS VACCINES.

41 VACCINATION NEXT

42 PNEUMOCONIOSES OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES INHALATION OF PARTICLES: DUSTS, SILICA, ASBESTOS, COAL, IRON OXIDES, COTTON, FLAX PARTICLES DEPOSITED DEPEND ON SEDIMENTATION, INERTIAL IMPACTION AND DIFFUSION

43 PATHOLOGY OF DISEASE INHALED PARTICULATES PROLIFERATION OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE DUE TO IRRITATION COLLAGEN FORMATION & COALESCING OF NODULES END RESULT IS LUNG AND HEART FAILURE

44 NODULE OF DUST

45 TYPES OF PNEUMCONIOSES SILICOSIS ASBESTOSIS ANTHRACOSIS SIDEROSIS BAGASOSSIS BYSSINOSIS ASBESTOS FIBERS

46 SYMPTOMS SOB RELATED TO SIZE OF NODULES WHEEZING COUGH DYSPNEA WEIGHT LOSS EXCESS SPUTUM REDUCED EXERCISE TOLERANCE

47 TREATMENT DUST SUPPRESSION TREAT SYMPTOMS SIMILAR TO COPD TREATMENT ANTIBIOTICS FOR SEC. INFECTION O2 THERAPY NEB AND STEROIDS CITY LUNG

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49 CYSTIC FIBROSIS INHERITED AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE TRAIT OCCURRING IN ABOUT 5% OF POP. A DISEASE OF EXOCRINE GLANDS WHICH HYPER- SECRETE PRIMARILY AFFECTING RESPIRATORY AND GI SYSTEMS MOST COMMON LETHAL GENETIC DIS. IN WHITE POP.

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51 SYMPTOMS ABN SWEAT AND MUCOUS GLANDS WITH LOSS OF NaCl CAN CAUSE: ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE, ARRHYTHMIAS, SHOCK. THICK MUCOUS CAUSES: RESP INFECTION, DYSPNEA, LUNG DISEASE, MALNUTRITION & POOR GROWTH.

52 CHEST PHYSICAL THERAPY

53 NEBULIZER DELIVERY OF BRONCHODILATORS

54 TREATMENT OF CF PT EXERCISE TO LOOSEN MUCUS AND STIMULATE COUGHING BRONCHODILATORS O2 THERAPY ANTIBIOTICS FOR SEC. INF. NUTRITION AND VITAMINS LUNG TRANSPLANT

55 PULMONARY EMBOLUS SUDDEN LODGEMENT OF A BLOOD CLOT WITH OBSTRUCTION OF BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE LUNG PARENCHYMA. CAN LEAD TO NECROSIS OF LUNG TISSUE = PUL. INFARCT

56 SYMPTOMS & TREATMENT SYMPTOMS:VARY IN FREQ. & INTENSITY TACHYPNEA SUBSTERNAL CHEST PAIN HYPOXEMIA TREATMENT: ANALGESICS, HEPARIN (WATCH FOR BLEEDING), O2, SEDATIVES, PUL. EMBOLECTOMY.

57 PhotoGallery bulbous emphysema anthracosis bronchopneumonia

58 PhotoGallery CF bronchiectasis

59 PhotoGallery emphysema

60 PhotoGallery Pul embolus Pul infarct

61 PhotoGallery pneumonia

62 PhotoGallery siderosis

63 PhotoGallery Status asthmaticus

64 PhotoGallery TBLung transplant

65 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS //krupp.wcc.hawaii.edu med-lab.utah.edu


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