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脑神经 The cranial nerves 广西医科大学解剖教研室 20030406 黄绍明 Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Brain Spinal cord Nervous.

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Presentation on theme: "脑神经 The cranial nerves 广西医科大学解剖教研室 20030406 黄绍明 Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Brain Spinal cord Nervous."— Presentation transcript:

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2 脑神经 The cranial nerves 广西医科大学解剖教研室 黄绍明

3 Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Brain Spinal cord Nervous System

4 Section 2 The Cranial Nerves There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves which are attached to the brain. The cranial nerves can be designated in two way and listed as follows:

5 Section 2 The Cranial Nerves I Olfactory n. II Optic n. Ⅲ Oculomotor n. Ⅳ Trochlear n. Ⅴ Trigeminal n. Ⅵ Abducent n. Ⅶ Facial n. Ⅷ Vestibulocochlear n. Ⅸ Glossopharyngeal n. Ⅹ Vagus n. Ⅺ Accessory n. Ⅻ Hypoglossal n.

6 The cranial nerve nuclei (review) Functional components of the cranial nerve nuclei: 1.General somatic motor nuclei 2. Special visceral motor nuclei 3. General visceral motor nuclei 4.General and special visceral sensory nuclei 5.General somatic sensory nuclei 6. Special somatic sensory nuclei

7 Cranial nerves contain seven components: 1.General and special somatic afferent (sensory) fibers 2.General and special visceral afferent (sensory) fibers 3.General somatic efferent (motor) fibers 4.General and special visceral efferent (motor) fibers

8 1. sensory nerves: Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅷ (contain only sensory fibers) 2. motor nerves: Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅵ, Ⅺ, Ⅻ (contain only motor fibers ) 3. mixed nerves: Ⅴ, Ⅶ, Ⅸ, Ⅹ (contain both sensory and motor fibers) Classification of cranial nerves According to the components and functions, the cranial nerves are divided into three types:

9 The Superficial origins of the cranial nerves on the brain Ⅰ Telencephalon (olfactory bulb) Ⅱ Diencephalon (lateral geniculate body) Ⅲ Midbrain (interpeduncular fossa ) Ⅳ Midbrain (beneath the inferior colliculus) Ⅴ Pons (the junction between basilar part of pons and the middle cerebellar peduncle ) Ⅵ Ⅶ Pons (bulbopontine sulcus) Ⅷ IX Ⅹ Medulla oblongata (behind the olive) Ⅺ Ⅻ Medulla oblongata (between the pyramid and olive)

10 I. Olfactory nerve Nasoplatine n. Olfactory bulb Olfactory tractOlfactory n. Pterygopalatine ganglion Posterior nasal br. Platine n. Nasal conchae Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Anterior ethmoidal n.

11 Olfactory n.

12 II. Optic nerve Optic n. Optic chiasma

13 Optic n. Optic chiasma Ledial geniculate body Optic tract Optic radiation

14 III. Oculomotor nerve Oculomotor nuclus Accessory nuclus of oculomotor n. Supplies the levator palpebrae superioris, medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus and inferior obliquus. The sphincter pupillae , ciliary muscle. Oculomotor n. Ciliary ganglion Oculomotor nuclus Accessory nuclus of oculomotor n.

15 The parasympathetic nerve fiber of the oculomotor nerve Accessory nuclus Ciliary ganglion

16 IV. Trochlear nerve Superior obliquus Trochlear n. Trochlear nucleus Superior orbital fissure

17 Trochlear n. Superior obliquus

18 V. Trigeminal nerve Motor nucleus of the trigeminal n. Potine nucleus of the trigeminal n. spinal nucleus of the trigeminal n. The motor fibers supplies the masticatory muscles, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani etc. The sensory fibers distributed to the skin of the face, the mucous membranes of the eye, tongue, oral cavity, nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses as well as the teeth, the eyeball, the lacrimal gland and the meninges. Trigeminal ganglion

19 ophthalmic n. Maxillary n. Mandibular n. Auriculotemporal n. Buccal n. Lingual n. Inferior alveolar n. The nerves of masticatory museles Infraorbital n. Zygomatic n. Pterygopalatine n. Superior alveolar n. Frontal n. Lacrimal n. Nasociliary n. Trigeminal nerve

20 Ophthalmic n. Mandibular n. Maxillary n.

21 VI. The abducent nerve Abducent n. Abducent nucleus Superior orbital fissure Lateral rectus

22 Abducent n.

23 VII. The facial nerve Facial nucleus Pterygopalatine ganglion Geniculete ganglion Submandibular ganglion The muscles of expression The lacrimal gland The submandibular and sublingual glands and small glands in the mucous membrane of the nose and palate. The taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue Nucleus of the solitary tract Superior salivatory nucleus

24 ① Chorda tympani n. ② Greater petrosal n. Braches outside the facial canal Facial n. ① Temporal branches ② Zygomatic branches ③ Buccal branches ④ Marginal mandibular branch ⑤ Cervical branch Braches within the facial canal The branches of the facial nerve

25 VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerve Cochlear n. Vestibular ganglion Cochlear ganglion Vestibular n. Facial nerve Cochlear nucleus Vestibular nucleus

26 Nucleus ambiguus Inferior salivatory nucleus Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal n. IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve The stylopharyngeus, The parotid gland Origination: Supply or distribution: Superior ganglion Inferior ganglion The skin of the posterior surface of the auricle The mucous membrane of the phartnx, the tonsils, the middle ear, the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, the carotid glomus and carotid sinus. Nucleus of the solitary tract Otic ganglion

27 ① Tympanic n. ② Carotid sinus branch ③ Lingual branches ④ Pharyngeal branches Superior ganglion Otic ganglion The man branches of the glossophayngeal nerve Inferior ganglion Parotid gland It srises from the inferior ganglion and enter the tympanic cavity to form the tympanic plexus which distributed to the mucous membrane of the middle ear.

28 Otic ganglion Parotid gland Tympanic n. Auriculotemporal n. Lesser petrosal n. Inferior salivatory nucleus The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers arises from the Inferior salivatory nucleus passe through the tympanic cavity and joins the otic ganglion. The postganglionic fibers supply the parotid gland.

29 ① Tympanic n. ② Carotid sinus branch ③ Lingual branches ④ Pharyngeal branches Superior ganglion Otic ganglion The man branches of the glossophayngeal nerve Inferior ganglion Parotid gland It distributed to the carotid glomus and the carotid sinus. They respond to the changes of either increased carbon dioxide tension or decreased oxygen tension in the blood, and to the changes of the arterial pressure reflexly. They contain the taste and general sensory visceral fibers, and distributed to the mucous membrane of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue. They supply the mucous membrane of the pharynx with sensory branches, the stylopharyngeus with motor branch.

30 Lingual branches carotid sinus branch

31 X. Vagus nerve Nucleus ambiguus Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal n. Origination: Supply or distribution: Nucleus of the solitary tract The striped muscle of the larynx and the pharynx Superior ganglion Inferior ganglion Intramural or paramural parasympathetic ganglia The smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands of the viscera in the thoracic and abdominal. The visceral of the neck, thorax and abdomen. The skin of the auricle and external acoustic meatus and cerebral dura mater. Dorsal nucleus of vagus n.

32 anterior gastric branches hepatic branches posterior gastric branches Celiac branches Branches in the neck : Branches in the thorax : Branches in the abdomen : The man branches of the vagus nerve superior laryngeal n. cervical cardiac branches pharyngeal branch recurrent laryngeal n. broncheal branches esophageal branches

33 Cervical cardiac branches Anterior gastric branches Celiac branches Pharyngeal branch Superior laryngeal n. Recurrent laryngeal n. Hepatic branches Broncheal branches Esophageal branches

34 XI. Accessory nerve Cranial root Accessory n. Spinal root Nucleus ambiguus Accessory nucleus Cranial root join the vagus nerve to the muscles of the soft palate and intrinsic muscles of the larynx. Spinal root supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius. Vagus nerve Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius

35 Hypoglossal n. Accessory n.

36 XII. Hypoglossal nerve Hypoglossal n. Hypoglossal nucleus Supplies all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue

37 The nerves supply the tongue 1. Trigeminal n. (mucous membrane of the ant. 2/3 of the tongue) 2. Facial n. (the taste buds of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue) 3. Glossopharyngeal n. (the taste buds and the mucous membrane of the posterior 1/3 of the tongue) 4. Hypoglossal n. (lingual muscles)

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