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Genetics Inheritance of Traits. Gregor Mendel 1822 – 1884 Born to peasant parents Ordained a priest in 1847 Studied physics and natural science 1851-

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Presentation on theme: "Genetics Inheritance of Traits. Gregor Mendel 1822 – 1884 Born to peasant parents Ordained a priest in 1847 Studied physics and natural science 1851-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetics Inheritance of Traits

2 Gregor Mendel 1822 – 1884 Born to peasant parents Ordained a priest in 1847 Studied physics and natural science (?) began pea experiments

3 Inheritance Children resemble their parents because they directly inherit traits from them Parts of DNA are expressed, and these are called genes (note that geneticists also refer to sequences not expressed as genes) Genes are not always identical – and each is referred to as an allele One gene may have many alleles – or variations of that gene’s ultimate function

4 Mendel’s Peas Began with plants that only produced each of these – only spherical or dented seeds, only yellow or green seeds, only purple or white flowers (etc.)

5 Mendel’s Peas Crossed a wrinkled with a spherical seed plant Crossed a yellow with a green seed plant Results? Dominant and recessive genes

6 Punnett Squares Remember during meiosis that 1 cell replicates DNA, the pairs separate, then the original and copy of DNA separates to 4 cells The Punnett reflects a single mother and single father germ cell’s possibilities

7 Punnett Squres Help to determine chance of inheriting a specific allele Genes are randomly assorted

8 Human Genetic Conditions Use of Mendelian genetics can determine the likelihood of inheriting or carrying a dangerous allele – like Huntington's disease

9 Genetic Disorders – Single Gene Cystic Fibrosis defective gene 7 protein produced normally helps salt (sodium chloride) move in and out of cells if protein doesn't work correctly movement is blocked and an abnormally thick sticky mucous is produced on the outside of the cell cells most seriously affected by this are the lung cells mucous clogs the airways in the lungs, and increases the risk of infection by bacteria

10 Genetic Disorders – Single Gene Sickle Cell Anemia single nucleotide substitution 11 prevents oxygen from reaching the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, or other organs, causing a lot of damage Without oxygen, the cells that make up these organs will begin to die As a result, these patients often experience frequent infections Many others

11 Genetic Disorders - Chromosomal Down Syndrome Turner Syndrome Klinefelter Syndrome Cri du chat Syndrome Williams Syndrome Many others

12 Down Syndrome triploidy 21 Distinctive features: flat face small broad nose abnormally shaped ears large tongue upward slanting eyes with small folds of skin in the corners respiratory infections gastrointestinal tract obstruction (blocked digestive tract) Leukemia heart defects hearing loss hypothyroidism various eye abnormalities moderate to severe mental retardation

13 Turner Syndrome missing X Distinctive features: shorter than normal may fail to start puberty when they should because ovaries (which produce eggs, as well as the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone) fail to develop properly. have a stocky appearance arms that turn out slightly at the elbow receding lower jaw short webbed neck low hairline at the back of the neck lymphedema (swelling of hands and feet) heart and/or kidney defects high blood pressure infertility https://images1.clinicaltools.com/images/gene/karyotypes/turnersyndromexnoy.jpg

14 Klinefelter Syndrome - XXY Distinctive features: develop as males often tall don't develop secondary sex characteristics, such as facial hair or underarm and pubic hair extra X chromosome primarily affects the testes, which produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone

15 Cri du chat Syndrome deletion 5 Distinctive features: small head (microcephaly) an unusually round face a small chin widely set eyes folds of skin over their eyes a small bridge of the nose. heart defects muscular or skeletal problems hearing or sight problems

16 Williams Syndrome missing part 7 Distinctive features: mental retardation heart defects unusual facial features (small upturned nose, wide mouth, full lips, small chin, widely spaced teeth) low birth weight failure to gain weight appropriately kidney abnormalities, and low muscle tone behaviors, such as hypersensitivity to loud noises and an overly outgoing personality.

17 Multifactoral Genetic Disorders Alzheimer’s Disease People who have the disorder slowly lose their ability to think clearly. At first, they may forget words or names, or have trouble finding things. As the disorder worsens, they may forget how to do simple tasks (such as walking to a friend's house or brushing their hair). Some people with Alzheimer's also feel nervous or sad

18 More Mendel Besides dominance/recessive, there is:  incomplete dominance  co-dominance  multiple alleles  polygenic inheritance  pleiotrophy

19 Definitions Phenotype – the expression of the genes – what the organism looks like and how it functions Genotype – genes inherited – the alleles of the genes whether expressed or not For example, if an organism inherits both the dominant and recessive alleles, it would have the phenotype of the dominant allele, but the genotype would be both dominant and recessive

20 Incomplete Dominance Organism receives both alleles, in this case, red flower and white flower. The phenotype is intermediate to red and white - pink

21 Co-dominance When alleles share fully in the expression of the gene. For example, our blood types A, B, AB and O.

22 Multiple Alleles Follows same “rules” as other inheritance Frequency of the allele can change with the population

23 Polygenic Inheritance But we don’t inherit one gene…  Estimates range from 20,000 to 40,000 coding genes

24 Pleiotrophy Hemophilia – single gene influence multiple phenotypic traits  Lacking protein in blood  Excessive bruising  Pain and swelling in the joints  Vision loss  Anemia  Fatigue  Neurological problems if bleeding occurs in brain

25 Gender Is it a boy or girl? Mom always has XX Dad has XY Dad’s sperm cells – two X and two Y (remember, DNA replicates first) Mom’s egg cells – four X cells

26 Not true for all species Some species, the female has different chromosomes and the male has the identical chromosomes. In this system, the chromosomes are referred to as W and Z Some species gender is determined by temperature Some species can change from male to female or vice versa Some species, only queens and drones reproduce Some species are both male and female – hermaphrodite  The term "hermaphrodite" derives from Hermaphroditus, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite, who fused with the nymph Salmacis, and thus possessing physical traits of both sexes.

27 Questions? BJ Shaw Panochthus frenzelianus American Museum of Natural History 2004


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