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Communicable and Chronic Diseases

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Presentation on theme: "Communicable and Chronic Diseases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicable and Chronic Diseases
Chapter 12

2 Objectives Day 1 The students will be able to recognize behaviors that help reduce the risk of infection from communicable diseases Be able to describe how the immune system works

3 Communicable Diseases
Communicable disease (infectious disease): An illness caused by pathogens that can be spread from one living thing to another. Pathogen: A germ that causes disease Ex. People develop “the flu” when pathogens that cause influenza enter their bodies.

4 Immune System Removes harmful organisms from the blood and combats pathogens Immune system is composed of body organs, tissues, cells, and chemicals The skin is the first line of defense Perspiration and oils on the skin kill pathogens Tears contain chemicals that kill pathogens and prevent them from entering eyes Mucous and hairs that line the inside of nose trap and destroy pathogens

5 Our Immune System

6 Immune system Lymphocytes: White blood cells that help the body fight pathogens. B Cell: White blood cell produced antibodies. Antibody: Special protein that helps fight infection. Helper T cell: White blood cell that signals B cells to produce antibodies. Macrophage: White blood cell that surrounds and destroys pathogens.

7 Communicable Diseases
Bacteria Single-celled microorganisms More than a thousand types of bacteria Types of diseases caused by bacteria Syphilis Gonorrhea Strep throat TB (Tuberculosis) Tetanus Lyme disease Strep Throat

8 Communicable Diseases
Rickettsia Pathogens that grow inside living cells and resemble bacteria Protozoa Tiny, single-celled organisms that produce toxins that cause disease Malaria African sleeping sickness

9 Communicable Diseases
Viruses Is the smallest known pathogen Viruses spread rapidly Common Cold Mumps Hepatitis Mononucleosis Chickenpox HIV Rabies Influenza

10 Communicable Diseases
Fungi Single or multi-celled parasitic organisms Fungi can live on skin, mucous membranes, and lungs Athlete’s foot Ringworm Jock itch Nail infections Thrush Athlete’s Foot- Above Oral Thrush- Below

11 Communicable Diseases
Helminths A parasitic worm Caused by eating undercooked pork or fish or from poor hygiene Tapeworms Pinworms Hookworms

12 The Spread of Pathogens
All of these diseases can be spread through direct contact Shacking hands Kissing Sexual intercourse Receiving a transfusion Handling bodily fluids (Blood and Urine) Open sores

13 Review Go through the worksheet and fill out the first page and do the assignment at the bottom of the page. Tomorrow we will be learning about respiratory diseases and allergies.

14 Objectives Day 2 Students will be able to identify the 5 respiratory diseases Students will be able to identify the characteristics of asthma The students will be able to identify immunizations needed at certain ages

15 Infectious Respiratory Diseases
Five infectious respiratory diseases Common Cold Influenza Pneumonia Strep Throat Tuberculosis (TB)

16 Common Cold Viral Infection Transmission Symptoms Treatment
Coughs, sneezes, people can inhale the virus Become infected by shaking hands with an infected person and then touch a mucous membrane (rub eyes, nose, mouth) Symptoms Runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, sore throat, cough, head ache, and can last 2-14 days Treatment Plenty of rest and fluids Over the count medicines Viral infection-Rhinovirus

17 Influenza Viral Infection Transmission Symptoms Treatment
From air through coughing and sneezing Enter body through mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) Spread Rapidly Symptoms Headaches, chills, sneezing, stuffy nose, sore throat, and dry cough Treatment Rest and drink plenty of fluids Viral infection- Reye’s syndrome

18 Pneumonia Viral infection Transmission Symptoms Treatment
Direct contact with a contaminated person or object, untreated respiratory disease Symptoms Shortness of breathe, difficulty breathing and coughing, chest pain, weakness, fever, and chills Treatment Antibiotics

19 Strep Throat Viral Infection Transmission Symptoms Treatment
Coughing, sneezing, and close contact with an infected person Symptoms Fever and sever sore throat Treatment Antibiotics, rest, and drink plenty of fluids

20 Tuberculosis Viral Infection Transmission Symptoms Treatment
Air, through coughing and sneezing of an infected person Symptoms Extreme tiredness coughing, nights sweats, lose of appetite, weight loss, low-grade fever, chills, bloody sputum, shortness of breath, and chest pain Treatment Antibiotics and supportive care

21 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Viral Infection Transmission Air, enters the body through mucous membranes Symptoms Fever higher than degrees F Cough, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, low oxygen in the blood, or X-ray findings of pneumonia Treatment Supportive care and rest

22 Asthma Noncommunicable disease Symptoms Asthma attack
Coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath Asthma attack An episode of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and tightness in the chest experienced by a person who has asthma

23 Exercise Induced Asthma (EIA)
A condition in which a person has difficulty breathing during or shortly after strenuous physical activity. Some people only suffer an asthma attack only with exercise Avoid asthma attacks by reducing asthma triggers Recognize warning signs and take medication if needed.

24 Immunizations For Adults
Adults need to receive… Tetanus (Every ten years) College students living in dorms are advised to be immunized for meningococcal disease (Meningitis) Pregnant women should not receive MMR and varicella vaccinations until after delivery because could lead to birth defects

25 Immunization Recommendations
All children should be immunized against.. Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles) Varicella (Chickenpox) Pneumococcal pneumonia Hepatitis B Diphtheris Tetanus Perussis (whopping cough) Polio

26 Allergies Allergy Airborne Allergens Animal dander Hay Fever
An overreaction of the body to a substance, that in most people causes no response Airborne Allergens Animal dander, feathers, pollens, and mites Animal dander Flakes of dead skin from an animal Hay Fever A common term for seasonal respiratory allergies that typically occur in the spring and fall

27 Allergy Tests Skin patch test Blood tests
Involves putting allergens on a parch, taping the patch to the skin, and observing the reaction Blood tests Can be done in a variety of ways (finger prick, taking blood)

28 Review Read the chapter on Reparatory diseases, Asthma, and Immunizations Do the next section of vocabulary words/questions in the packet

29 Objectives Day 3 Students will be able to list a variety of Cardiovascular diseases Students will learn how to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases Students will identify the difference between Type I, Type II diabetes, and Gestational diabetes

30 Cardiovascular Disease
Angina Pectoris Chest pain that results form narrowed coronary arteries Nitroglycerin A drug that widens the coronary arteries, allowing more oxygen to get to the cardiac muscle Congestive Heart Failure A condition that occurs when the heart’s pumping ability is below normal capacity and fluid accumulates in the lungs and other areas of the body

31 Cardiovascular Disease
Coronary Heart Disease A disease in which the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked Coronary artery A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart muscles Plague Hardened deposits of fat and other materials in the walls of arteries throughout the body

32 Cardiovascular Disease
Arteriosclerosis Hardening and thickening of the arteries Atherosclerosis A disease in which fat deposits collect on artery walls

33 Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Rhythm Abnormalities Arrhythmia Heart condition in which the heart may beat very slowly or very fast for no obvious reason Pacemaker A device that is implanted in the heart to stimulate normal heart contractions Heart Attack The death of cardiac muscle caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart

34 Cardiovascular Diseases
Rheumatic fever An autoimmune action in the heart that can cause fever, weakness, and damage to the valves in the heart Rheumatic Heart Disease Permanent heart damage that results from rheumatic fever Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident) A condition caused by a blocked or broken blood vessel in the brain Aneurysm Weakened area of a blood vessel

35 Reducing Your Risk Maintain a healthy blood cholesterol level
A fat-like substance made by the body and found in certain foods Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) Substances in the blood that carry cholesterol to body cells High density lipoproteins (HDLs) Substances in the blood that carry cholesterol to the liver for breakdown and excretion The higher the HDL level, the lower the risk of heart disease Saturated Fat A type of fat from dairy products, solid vegetable fat, and meat and poultry

36 Reducing Your Risk Avoid tobacco products
Maintain healthful blood pressure Maintain a healthful body weight Participate in regular physical activity Manage stress

37 Diabetes Type I diabetes The body produces little or no insulin
Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood sugar level If the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin enough insulin, a person develops diabetes Appears most often in children and young adults People with Type I need daily injections of insulin to stay alive

38 Diabetes Type II diabetes
The body produces insulin but cannot be used by cells About 90-95% of people who have diabetes have Type II Most frequently strike people years old Symptoms include: Feeling tired, frequent urination, unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections , and slow healing of sores About 80% of people with Type II are over weight

39 Diabetes Gestational Diabetes Occurs in some females during pregnancy
Insulin is produced, but the body does not respond to it Usually treated with diet, but not with oral medications because it could hurt the baby Usually goes away after the baby is born

40 Review Discussion Do numbers 30-69 in the handout
Read the chapter on Cardiovascular diseases and Diabetes

41 Objectives Day 4 Students will learn the different types of Sexual Transmitted Diseases Student will learn how to reduce risk of infection with sexual transmitted diseases

42 Some Common STD’s/STIs
Bacterial (curable) Viral (incurable) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Bacterial vaginosis Trichomoniasis, protozoa* HIV Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Hepatitis B Molluscum Contagiosum

43 Review Discussion Study for test for tomorrow

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