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Communicable and Chronic Diseases Chapter 12. Objectives Day 1  The students will be able to recognize behaviors that help reduce the risk of infection.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicable and Chronic Diseases Chapter 12. Objectives Day 1  The students will be able to recognize behaviors that help reduce the risk of infection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicable and Chronic Diseases Chapter 12

2 Objectives Day 1  The students will be able to recognize behaviors that help reduce the risk of infection from communicable diseases  Be able to describe how the immune system works

3 Communicable Diseases  Communicable disease (infectious disease):  An illness caused by pathogens that can be spread from one living thing to another.  Pathogen:  A germ that causes disease  Ex. People develop “the flu” when pathogens that cause influenza enter their bodies.

4 Immune System  Removes harmful organisms from the blood and combats pathogens  Immune system is composed of body organs, tissues, cells, and chemicals  The skin is the first line of defense  Perspiration and oils on the skin kill pathogens  Tears contain chemicals that kill pathogens and prevent them from entering eyes  Mucous and hairs that line the inside of nose trap and destroy pathogens

5 Our Immune System

6 Immune system  Lymphocytes: White blood cells that help the body fight pathogens.  B Cell: White blood cell produced antibodies.  Antibody: Special protein that helps fight infection.  Helper T cell: White blood cell that signals B cells to produce antibodies.  Macrophage: White blood cell that surrounds and destroys pathogens.

7 Communicable Diseases  Bacteria  Single-celled microorganisms  More than a thousand types of bacteria  Types of diseases caused by bacteria  Syphilis  Gonorrhea  Strep throat  TB (Tuberculosis)  Tetanus  Lyme disease Strep Throat

8 Communicable Diseases  Rickettsia  Pathogens that grow inside living cells and resemble bacteria  Protozoa  Tiny, single-celled organisms that produce toxins that cause disease  Malaria  African sleeping sickness

9 Communicable Diseases  Viruses  Is the smallest known pathogen  Viruses spread rapidly  Common Cold  Mumps  Hepatitis  Mononucleosis  Chickenpox  HIV  Rabies  Influenza

10 Communicable Diseases  Fungi  Single or multi-celled parasitic organisms  Fungi can live on skin, mucous membranes, and lungs  Athlete’s foot  Ringworm  Jock itch  Nail infections  Thrush Athlete’s Foot- Above Oral Thrush- Below

11 Communicable Diseases  Helminths  A parasitic worm  Caused by eating undercooked pork or fish or from poor hygiene  Tapeworms  Pinworms  Hookworms

12 The Spread of Pathogens  All of these diseases can be spread through direct contact  Shacking hands  Kissing  Sexual intercourse  Receiving a transfusion  Handling bodily fluids (Blood and Urine)  Open sores

13 Review  Go through the worksheet and fill out the first page and do the assignment at the bottom of the page.  Tomorrow we will be learning about respiratory diseases and allergies.

14 Objectives Day 2  Students will be able to identify the 5 respiratory diseases  Students will be able to identify the characteristics of asthma  The students will be able to identify immunizations needed at certain ages

15 Infectious Respiratory Diseases  Five infectious respiratory diseases  Common Cold  Influenza  Pneumonia  Strep Throat  Tuberculosis (TB)

16 Common Cold  Viral Infection  Transmission  Coughs, sneezes, people can inhale the virus  Become infected by shaking hands with an infected person and then touch a mucous membrane (rub eyes, nose, mouth)  Symptoms  Runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, sore throat, cough, head ache, and can last 2-14 days  Treatment  Plenty of rest and fluids  Over the count medicines  Viral infection-Rhinovirus

17 Influenza  Viral Infection  Transmission  From air through coughing and sneezing  Enter body through mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth)  Spread Rapidly  Symptoms  Headaches, chills, sneezing, stuffy nose, sore throat, and dry cough  Treatment  Rest and drink plenty of fluids  Viral infection- Reye’s syndrome

18 Pneumonia  Viral infection  Transmission  Direct contact with a contaminated person or object, untreated respiratory disease  Symptoms  Shortness of breathe, difficulty breathing and coughing, chest pain, weakness, fever, and chills  Treatment  Antibiotics

19 Strep Throat  Viral Infection  Transmission  Coughing, sneezing, and close contact with an infected person  Symptoms  Fever and sever sore throat  Treatment  Antibiotics, rest, and drink plenty of fluids

20 Tuberculosis  Viral Infection  Transmission  Air, through coughing and sneezing of an infected person  Symptoms  Extreme tiredness coughing, nights sweats, lose of appetite, weight loss, low-grade fever, chills, bloody sputum, shortness of breath, and chest pain  Treatment  Antibiotics and supportive care

21 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)  Viral Infection  Transmission  Air, enters the body through mucous membranes  Symptoms  Fever higher than degrees F  Cough, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, low oxygen in the blood, or X-ray findings of pneumonia  Treatment  Supportive care and rest

22 Asthma  Noncommunicable disease  Symptoms  Coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath  Asthma attack  An episode of coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and tightness in the chest experienced by a person who has asthma

23 Exercise Induced Asthma (EIA)  A condition in which a person has difficulty breathing during or shortly after strenuous physical activity.  Some people only suffer an asthma attack only with exercise  Avoid asthma attacks by reducing asthma triggers  Recognize warning signs and take medication if needed.

24 Immunizations For Adults  Adults need to receive…  Tetanus (Every ten years)  College students living in dorms are advised to be immunized for meningococcal disease (Meningitis)  Pregnant women should not receive MMR and varicella vaccinations until after delivery because could lead to birth defects

25 Immunization Recommendations  Hepatitis B  Diphtheris  Tetanus  Perussis (whopping cough)  Polio  Measles  Mumps  Rubella (German Measles)  Varicella (Chickenpox)  Pneumococcal pneumonia All children should be immunized against..

26 Allergies  Allergy  An overreaction of the body to a substance, that in most people causes no response  Airborne Allergens  Animal dander, feathers, pollens, and mites  Animal dander  Flakes of dead skin from an animal  Hay Fever  A common term for seasonal respiratory allergies that typically occur in the spring and fall

27 Allergy Tests  Skin patch test  Involves putting allergens on a parch, taping the patch to the skin, and observing the reaction  Blood tests  Can be done in a variety of ways (finger prick, taking blood)

28 Review  Read the chapter on Reparatory diseases, Asthma, and Immunizations  Do the next section of vocabulary words/questions in the packet

29 Objectives Day 3  Students will be able to list a variety of Cardiovascular diseases  Students will learn how to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases  Students will identify the difference between Type I, Type II diabetes, and Gestational diabetes

30 Cardiovascular Disease  Angina Pectoris  Chest pain that results form narrowed coronary arteries  Nitroglycerin  A drug that widens the coronary arteries, allowing more oxygen to get to the cardiac muscle  Congestive Heart Failure  A condition that occurs when the heart’s pumping ability is below normal capacity and fluid accumulates in the lungs and other areas of the body

31 Cardiovascular Disease  Coronary Heart Disease  A disease in which the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked  Coronary artery  A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart muscles  Plague  Hardened deposits of fat and other materials in the walls of arteries throughout the body

32 Cardiovascular Disease  Arteriosclerosis  Hardening and thickening of the arteries  Atherosclerosis  A disease in which fat deposits collect on artery walls

33 Cardiovascular Diseases  Heart Rhythm Abnormalities  Arrhythmia  Heart condition in which the heart may beat very slowly or very fast for no obvious reason  Pacemaker  A device that is implanted in the heart to stimulate normal heart contractions  Heart Attack  The death of cardiac muscle caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart

34 Cardiovascular Diseases  Rheumatic fever  An autoimmune action in the heart that can cause fever, weakness, and damage to the valves in the heart  Rheumatic Heart Disease  Permanent heart damage that results from rheumatic fever  Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident)  A condition caused by a blocked or broken blood vessel in the brain  Aneurysm  Weakened area of a blood vessel

35 Reducing Your Risk  Maintain a healthy blood cholesterol level  Cholesterol  A fat-like substance made by the body and found in certain foods  Low density lipoproteins (LDLs)  Substances in the blood that carry cholesterol to body cells  High density lipoproteins (HDLs)  Substances in the blood that carry cholesterol to the liver for breakdown and excretion  The higher the HDL level, the lower the risk of heart disease  Saturated Fat  A type of fat from dairy products, solid vegetable fat, and meat and poultry

36 Reducing Your Risk  Avoid tobacco products  Maintain healthful blood pressure  Maintain a healthful body weight  Participate in regular physical activity  Manage stress

37 Diabetes  Type I diabetes  The body produces little or no insulin  Insulin is a hormone that regulates the blood sugar level  If the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin enough insulin, a person develops diabetes  Appears most often in children and young adults  People with Type I need daily injections of insulin to stay alive

38 Diabetes  Type II diabetes  The body produces insulin but cannot be used by cells  About 90-95% of people who have diabetes have Type II  Most frequently strike people years old  Symptoms include: Feeling tired, frequent urination, unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections, and slow healing of sores  About 80% of people with Type II are over weight

39 Diabetes  Gestational Diabetes  Occurs in some females during pregnancy  Insulin is produced, but the body does not respond to it  Usually treated with diet, but not with oral medications because it could hurt the baby  Usually goes away after the baby is born

40 Review  Discussion  Do numbers in the handout  Read the chapter on Cardiovascular diseases and Diabetes

41 Objectives Day 4  Students will learn the different types of Sexual Transmitted Diseases  Student will learn how to reduce risk of infection with sexual transmitted diseases

42 Bacterial (curable) Viral (incurable)  Chlamydia  Gonorrhea  Syphilis  Bacterial vaginosis  Trichomoniasis, protozoa*  HIV  Herpes  Genital Warts (HPV)  Hepatitis B  Molluscum Contagiosum Some Common STD’s/STIs

43 Review  Discussion  Study for test for tomorrow

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