Presentation on theme: "Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamins A, D, E and K. Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Also known as retinol, retinal, retinoic acid Vitamin A is found in the body."— Presentation transcript:
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Also known as retinol, retinal, retinoic acid Vitamin A is found in the body in compounds known as retinoids: retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. These have functional roles in vision, healthy epithelial cells, and growth.
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A deficiency is a major health problem in the world. Toxicity is often associated with abuse of supplements. Plant foods provide carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, some of which have vitamin A activity. Animal foods provide compounds that are easily converted to retinol. Retinol binding protein (RBP) allows vitamin A to be transported throughout the body.
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Roles in the Body Vitamin A in Vision Helps to maintain the cornea Conversion of light energy into nerve impulses at the retina Rhodopsin is a light-sensitive pigment of the retina that contains a protein called opsin.
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Roles in the Body Vitamin A in Protein Synthesis and Cell Differentiation Through cell differentiation, vitamin A allows cells to perform specific functions. Epithelial cells Epithelial tissues on the outside of the body form the skin. Epithelial tissues on the inside of the body form the mucous membranes.
Fig. 11-4, p. 372 Vitamin A maintains healthy cells in the mucous membranes. Without vitamin A, the normal structure and function of the cells in the mucous membranes are impaired. Mucus Goblet cells Stepped Art
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Roles in the Body Vitamin A in Reproduction and Growth Sperm development in men Normal fetal development in women Growth in children Remodeling of the bone involves osteclasts, osteoblasts, and lysosomes. Osteoclasts are cells that destroy bone growth. Osteoblasts are cells that build bones. Lysosomes are sacs of degradative enzymes that destroy bones.
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Roles in the Body Beta-Carotene as an Antioxidant Beta-carotene helps protect the body from diseases, including cancer.
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A Deficiency Because vitamin A is stored in the body, it would take a year or more to develop a deficiency in the presence of inadequate intake. Infectious Diseases Impaired immunity correlates with vitamin A deficiency in children. The goals of worldwide health organizations include vitamin A supplementation. Night Blindness First detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency Inability to see in dim light or inability to recover sight after a flash of bright light
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A Deficiency Blindness Xerophthalmia Xerosis is the first stage where the cornea becomes dry and hard. Keratomalacia is the softening of the cornea. Keratinization Epithelial cells secrete a protein called keratin—the hard, inflexible protein of hair and nails. Changes in epithelial cells results in keratinization, rough, dry and scaly skin. Deficiency disease is called hypovitaminosis A
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A Toxicity Can occur with concentrated amounts of the preformed vitamin A from animal foods, fortified foods, or supplements. Consuming excessive amounts of beta-carotene from supplements can be harmful. Bone Defects Increased activity of osteoclasts causes weakened bones and contributes to osteoporosis and fractures.
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A Toxicity Birth Defects Teratogenic risk is possible, resulting in abnormal fetal development and birth defects. Vitamin A supplements are not recommended the first trimester of pregnancy. Not for Acne Massive doses for teens are not effective on acne. Accutane is made from vitamin A, but is chemically different. It is toxic during growth and can cause birth defects. Retin-A fights acne, the wrinkles of aging, and other skin disorders.
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A Toxicity Toxicity is called hypervitaminosis A Chronic toxicity symptoms include liver abnormalities. Acute toxicity symptoms include blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, headaches, and pressure in the skull. Upper level for adults: 3000 μg/day
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A Recommendations (2001 RDA) Expressed as retinal activity equivalents (RAE) because sources include all forms of retinoids and beta-carotene RDA men: 900 μg RAE/day RDA women: 700 μg RAE/day
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A in Foods Retinol is found in fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, and eggs. Beta-carotene Spinach and other dark green leafy vegetables (chlorophyll pigment masks the color) Deep orange fruits like apricots and cantaloupe Deep orange vegetables like squash, carrots, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin White foods are typically low in beta- carotene. Liver is rich in vitamin A.
Vitamin D Vitamin D is a nonessential nutrient that acts like a hormone in the body. The body can make vitamin D with help from sunlight.
Fig. 11-9, p. 377 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D 3 (active form) Stepped Art In the liver: Ultraviolet light from the sun In the kidneys: Vitamin D 3 (an inactive form) Hydroxylation Foods In the skin: 7-dehydrocholesterol (a precursor made in the liver from cholesterol) Previtamin D 3 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 Hydroxylation
Vitamin D Roles in the Body Vitamin D in Bone Growth Helps to maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphorus Works in combination with other nutrients and hormones Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K Parathormone and calcitonin Collagen Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride
Roles in the Body Vitamin D in Other Roles Immune system Brain and nervous system Pancreas, skin, muscles, cartilage, and reproductive organs
Vitamin D Vitamin D Deficiency Factors that contribute to deficiency Dark skin Breastfeeding without supplementation Lack of sunlight Use of nonfortified milk
Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets Affects mainly children worldwide Deficiency symptoms Inadequate calcification of bones Growth retardation Misshapen bones- bowing of the legs Enlargement of the ends of long bones Deformities of ribs, Lax muscles (resulting in a protruding abdomen) and muscle spasms
Vitamin D Deficiency Osteomalacia Affects adults Soft, flexible, brittle, deformed bones Progressive weakness Pain in pelvis, lower back, and legs
Vitamin D Deficiency Osteoporosis Loss of calcium from the bones due to inadequate synthesis of vitamin D Results in a reduced bone density The Elderly Deficiency is likely due to inadequate production and activation of vitamin D, a decreased consumption of milk, and having little time in the sun. There is an increased risk for bone loss and fractures.
Vitamin D Toxicity More likely compared to other vitamins Vitamin D from sunlight and food is not likely to cause toxicity. High-dose supplements may cause toxicity. Toxicity symptoms Elevated blood calcium Calcification of soft tissues (blood vessels, kidneys, heart, lungs, and tissues around joints) Frequent urination
Vitamin D Vitamin D Recommendations (1997 Adequate Intake) and Sources AI 5 μg/day for adults 19-50 years old AI 10 μg/day for adults 51-70 years old AI 15 μg/day for adults if older than 70 years of age
Vitamin D Recommendations Vitamin D in Foods Fortified milk, butter, and margarine Cereals Chocolate mixes Veal, beef, egg yolks, liver, fatty fish and their oils (Cod liver oil) Vegans may need fortification or supplements if they do not have adequate sun exposure.
Vitamin D Recommendations Vitamin D from the Sun Synthesized in the body from cholesterol SPF of 8 or above prevents the synthesis of vitamin D from sunlight. Can be obtained from tanning beds depending on type of UV radiation.
Vitamin E There are four different tocopherol compounds, but only the alpha-tocopherol has vitamin E activity in human beings. Vitamin E as an Antioxidant Stops the chain reaction of free radicals Protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A Protects the oxidation of LDLs
Vitamin E Deficiency Primary deficiency due to inadequate intake is rare Erythrocyte hemolysis Occurs in premature infants Hemolytic anemia can be treated with vitamin E.
Vitamin E Vitamin E Deficiency - Symptoms Loss of muscle coordination and reflexes Impaired vision and speech Nerve damage Erythrocyte hemolysis (breaking open of red blood cells) Supplements do not prevent or cure muscular dystrophy. Fibrocystic breast disease responds to vitamin E treatment. Intermittent claudication responds to vitamin E treatment.
Vitamin E Vitamin E Toxicity Rare and the least toxic of the fat-soluble vitamins Upper level for adults: 1000 mg/day May augment the effects of anticlotting medication Vitamin E Recommendations (2000 RDA) RDA adults: 15 mg/day
Vitamin E in Foods Polyunsaturated plant oils such as margarine, salad dressings, and shortenings Leafy green vegetables Wheat germ Whole grains Liver and egg yolks Nuts and seeds Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen
Vitamin K Also known as phylloquinone, menaquinone, menadione, and naphthoquinone Vitamin K is unique in that half of human needs are met through the action of intestinal bacteria. Vitamin K is essential in blood clotting. deficiency can cause uncontrolled bleeding. Deficiencies can occur in newborn infants and people taking antibiotics.
Vitamin K Roles in the Body Synthesis of blood-clotting proteins Synthesis of bone proteins that regulate blood calcium Without vitamin K, a hemorrhagic disease may develop. Hemophilia is a hereditary disorder and is not cured with vitamin K.
Vitamin K Vitamin K Deficiency Symptoms include hemorrhaging Secondary deficiencies may occur with use of antibiotics. Newborn infants receive a single dose of vitamin K at birth because of a sterile intestinal tract.
Vitamin K Vitamin K Toxicity Uncommon No known toxicities High doses can decrease the effectiveness of anticlotting medications.
Vitamin K Vitamin K Recommendations (2001 AI) and Sources AI men: 120 μg/day AI women: 90 μg/day Vitamin K Sources Bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract Significant Food Sources Liver Leafy green vegetables and cabbage-type vegetables Milk
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins--In Summary The function of fat-soluble vitamins depends on the presence of other fat- soluble vitamins. There are many interactions of fat-soluble vitamins with minerals. It is important to eat a wide variety of foods every day.
Oxidants are compounds in the body that oxidize other compounds. Antioxidants have a role in preventing oxidation, and thus assist in the prevention of chronic disease. Researchers and medical experts are still clarifying the roles of these nutrients in relationship to health and disease.
Free Radicals and Disease Produced by normal body processes and environmental factors such as ultraviolet light, air pollution and tobacco smoke Free radicals are highly unstable due to unpaired electrons and are often damaging. Antioxidants stabilize free radicals and protect against oxidative stress. Cognitive performance, aging, cancer, arthritis, cataracts and heart disease may be protected with antioxidants.
Defending against Cancer Antioxidants may protect DNA. Fruits and vegetables have antioxidants such as vitamin C and beta-carotene.
Defending against Heart Disease Fruits and vegetables strengthen antioxidant defenses against LDL oxidation. Vitamin E defends against LDL oxidation, inflammations, arterial injuries and blood clotting. Vitamin C may protect against LDL oxidation, raises HDL, lowers total cholesterol and improves blood pressure.
Food, Supplements, or Both? Food and diet Reduce saturated or trans-fat Select foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fruits and vegetables offer antioxidants among other vitamins and minerals. High in whole grains and low in refined grains Exercise, control weight and eliminate smoking to prevent disease.
Food, Supplements, or Both? Supplements Not enough data to confirm benefits of supplements only Contents of supplements are limiting Still need research to define optimum and dangerous levels with supplements At high levels, supplements may act as prooxidants.
Food, Supplements, or Both? High-antioxidant foods Fruits – pomegranates, berries and citrus Vegetables – kale, spinach and Brussels sprouts Grains – millet and oats Legumes – pinto beans and soybeans Nuts - walnuts