Presentation on theme: "Nonspecific Defenses of the Host. The Immune System Innate (Nonspecific) ImmunityAcquired (Specific) Immunity First line of defense (barriers at the body."— Presentation transcript:
Nonspecific Defenses of the Host
The Immune System Innate (Nonspecific) ImmunityAcquired (Specific) Immunity First line of defense (barriers at the body surface) Second line defenseThird line of defense Skin Mucous membranes Secretions Reflexes Normal microbiota Inflammation Phagocytes Fever Complement system Interferon T cell lymphocytes B cell lymphocytes Antibodies
The First Line of Defense Surface Barriers
Epidermis (Skin) Intact surface is rarely penetrated by microbes Stratum Corneum is made of dead keratinized cells that form an armor plating Dead karatinized cells are constantly sloughing off
Epidermis Dry: Most areas of the skin are too dry for microbial growth. Acidic: (pH 5): The sebaceous glands produces sebum, an unsaturated fatty acid. Temperature: slightly cooler than 37 degrees Resident microflora: The natural flora out competes pathogenic organisms.
Mucous Membranes Mucous membranes are surfaces areas lining the Respiratory, G.I., and urogenital tracts. These membranes are considered to be outside the body. Mucous membranes are involved in either secretion or absorption and thus cannot be covered with an armor of dead cells. Membranes must be bathed in fluids (warm, wet environments that would readily colonize bacteria if they were not protected by a number of defenders.
Defense of the Mucous Membrane Goblet cells produce mucus, a thick sticky substance composed of polysaccharide and protein. Mucus contains carbohydrate structures similar to the ones on mucosal cells surfaces Mucus traps bacteria before they can reach membrane. Muco-ciliary escalator pushes microbes and debris outside the respiratory system M-cells funnel bacteria into waiting phagocyts
Eyes (lacrimal apparatus Washing action of tears along with the blinking action of the eyelid mechanically removes bacteria and debris Lysozyme attacks peptidoglycan layer of bacteria
Stomach Low pH and digestive enzymes kill microbes and endospores that enter the GI tract.