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Presentation on theme: "ORAL MUCOSA."— Presentation transcript:


2 Oral Mucosa first space of the mouth it is a nearly oval-shaped cavity
laterally and in front: alveolar arches posteriorly: isthmus of the fauces it is a nearly oval-shaped cavity

3 Anatomy two rows of teeth supported by facial bones of the skull, the maxilla above and the mandible below teeth are surrounded by gingiva, which supports the tissue of oral cavity protection other structures that aid chewing are the lips, cheeks, tongue, hard palate, soft palate, and floor of the mouth

4 Anatomy Vestibule externally: lips and cheeks
internally: gums and teeth communicates with the surface of the body by the rima or orifice of the mouth receives the secretion from the parotid salivary glands

5 Anatomy Mouth Cavity Proper cavum oris proprium
laterally and in front: alveolar arches with their contained teeth behind: communicates with the pharynx by isthmus faucium roofed by the hard and soft palates, floor is formed by the tongue receives the secretion from the submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands

6 Anatomy Lips labia oris surround the rima or orifice of the mouth
externally: integument internally: mucous membrane inner surface is connected in the middle line to the corresponding gum by the frenulum

7 Anatomy Gums gingivœ dense fibrous tissue
closely connected to the periosteum of the alveolar processes, and surrounding the necks of the teeth covered by smooth and vascular mucous membrane

8 Anatomy Hard Palate palatum durum
anterior and lateral: alveolar arches and gums continuous with the soft palate covered with stratified squamous epithelium furnished with numerous palatal glands

9 Anatomy Soft Palate palatum molle
movable fold, suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate forms an incomplete septum between the mouth and pharynx

10 Anatomy Soft Palate anterior surface: concave, continuous with the roof of the mouth, and marked by a median raphé posterior surface: is convex, and continuous with the mucous membrane covering the floor of the nasal cavities

11 Anatomy upper border: attached to the posterior margin of the hard palate sides: blended with the pharynx lower border: free palatine velum: hangs like a curtain between the mouth and pharynx palatine uvula: small, conical, pendulous process that hangs from the middle of its lower border arches or pillars of the fauces: two curved folds of mucous membrane, containing muscular fibers

12 Anatomy Teeth dentes deciduous or milk teeth permanent teeth
twenty in number: four incisors, two canines, and four molars    permanent teeth thirty-two in number: four incisors, two canines, four premolars, and six molars

13 Anatomy Teeth crown: projecting above the gum
root: embedded in the alveolus neck: the constricted portion between the crown and root

14 Anatomy Lower central incisors 6 to 9 months. Upper incisors
Lower lateral incisors and first molars 15 to 21 months. Canines 16 to 20 months. Second molars 20 to 24 months.

15 Anatomy First molars 6th year. Two central incisors 7th year.
Two lateral incisors 8th year. First premolars 9th year. Second premolars 10th year. Canines 11th to 12th year. Second molars 12th to 13th year. Third molars 17th to 25th year.

16 Salivary Glands Parotid Gland glandula parotis largest of the three
weight: gm side of the face, below and in front of the external ear main portion of the gland: between the ramus of the mandible in front and the mastoid process and sternocleidomastoideus behind

17 Salivary Glands Submaxillary Gland glandula submaxillaris
size of a walnut situated in the submaxillary triangle

18 submaxillary duct: 5 cm. long
opens by a narrow orifice on the summit of a small papilla, at the side of the frenulum linguæ lies between the lingual and hypoglossal nerves, but at the anterior border of the muscle it is crossed laterally by the lingual nerve Vessels and Nerves blood supply: branches of the external maxillary and lingual nerves: submaxillary ganglion receives filaments from the chorda tympani of the facial nerve and the lingual branch of the mandibular nerve

19 Salivary Glands Sublingual Gland glandula sublinguali
smallest of the three glands beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth, at the side of the frenulum linguæ weighs nearly 2 gm

20 Above: mucous membrane; below: Mylohyoideus; behind: deep part of the submaxillary gland; lateral: mandible; and medial: Genioglossus separated by the lingual nerve and the submaxillary duct excretory ducts: 8-20 ducts of Rivinus join the submaxillary duct duct of Bartholin joins the sublingual duct which opens into the submaxillary duct sublingual and submental arteries nerves: lingual, the chorda tympani, and the sympathetic innervation   

21 Anatomy Accessory Glands
posterior part of the dorsum of the tongue behind the vallate papillæ large numbers are present in the soft palate, the lips, and cheeks same structure as the larger salivary glands mucous or mixed type

22 Function begins digestion by mechanically breaking up the solid food particles into smaller pieces and mixing them with saliva plays an important role in speech, facial, expression,kissing, eating, drinking, breathing infants: sucking reflex

23 Diseases

24 Cleft Lip and Palate cheiloschisis and palatoschisis
failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes cleft is a fissure or opening—a gap non-fusion of the body's natural structures that form before birth

25 Cleft Lip small gap or an indentation in the lip (partial or incomplete cleft) or it continues into the nose (complete cleft) lip cleft can occur as a one sided (unilateral) or two sided (bilateral) successfully treated with surgery soon after birth

26 Cleft Lip within the first 2–3 months after birth, surgery is performed to close the cleft lip "rule of 10s" (Wilhelmmesen and Musgrave in 1969) the child is at least 10 weeks of age weighs at least 10 pounds at least 10g hemoglobin

27 Cleft Palate condition in which the two plates of the skull that form the hard palate (roof of the mouth) are not completely joined. failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or the median palatine processes (formation of the secondary palate)

28 Cleft Palate occur as complete (soft and hard palate, possibly including a gap in the jaw) or incomplete (a 'hole' in the roof of the mouth, usually as a cleft soft palate) a direct result of an open connection between the oral cavity and nasal cavity is velopharyngeal insufficiency corrected by surgery usually performed between 6 and 12 months 20-25% only require one palatal surgery to achieve a competent velopharyngeal valve capable of producing normal, non-hypernasal speech

29 Malignant Tumors Lips squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip (90%)
risk factors: pipe smokers, prolonged intense sun exposure symptoms: intractable ulcerations in the vermillion border, large exophytic lesions diagnostic: biopsy treatment: surgical excision low rate of metastasis to regional lymph nodes

30 Malignant Tumors Oral Cavity squamous cell carcinoma
risk factors: long history of nicotine and alcohol abuse symptoms: painful swallowing, blood-tinged saliva, fetid breath odor diagnosis: visual inspection, bimanual palpation, imaging treatment: surgery and radiation therapy

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