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ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.

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Presentation on theme: "ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by."— Presentation transcript:

1 ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Skin and Body Membranes

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin and Body Membranes  Basic Structure  Thin sheetlike organs  Composed of Epithelial Tissue and Connective Tissue

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin and Body Membranes  Function of body membranes  Line or cover body surfaces  Protect body surfaces  Lubricate body surfaces

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Body Membranes  Epithelial membranes  Cutaneous  Cutaneous membrane  Mucous  Mucous membrane  Serous  Serous membrane  Connective tissue membranes  Synovial  Synovial membrane

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cutaneous Membrane  Cutaneous membrane = skin  A dry membrane  Outermost protective boundary  Superficial epidermis  Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium  Underlying dermis  Mostly dense connective tissue Figure 4.1a

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cutaneous Membrane Figure 4.1a

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mucous Membranes  Surface epithelium  Moist  Moist membranes site  Type depends on site loose connective  Underlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria) body cavities open  Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface absorption secretion  Often adapted for absorption or secretion Figure 4.1b

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mucous Membranes Figure 4.1b

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes simple squamous  Surface simple squamous epithelium areolar connective  Underlying areolar connective tissue body cavities closed  Lines body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body serous  Serous layers separated by serous fluid Figure 4.1c

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes Figure 4.1c

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes  Specific serous membranes  Peritoneum  Abdominal cavity  Pleura  Around the lungs  Pericardium  Around the heart Figure 4.1d

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 01.11

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 01.12

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Connective Tissue Membrane  Synovial membrane  Connective tissue only  Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints Figure 4.2

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Integumentary System  Skin (cutaneous membrane)  Skin derivatives (accessory organs)  Sweat glands  Oil glands  Hairs  Nails

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Functions  Protects deeper tissues from:  Mechanical damage  Bumps, cuts  Chemical damage  Acids, bases  Bacterial damage  Infections, disease  Thermal damage  Heat, cold  Ultraviolet radiation  Harmful sunlight

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Functions  Desiccation  Water loss  Aids in heat regulation  Capillaries  Capillaries open to release, or close to hold in heat carried by blood  Sweat glands  Sweat glands activate to release heat  Aids in excretion of urea and uric acid  Perspiration  Synthesizes vitamin D  Sunlightcholesterol  Sunlight converts cholesterol to vitamin D

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure outer  Epidermis – outer layer  Stratified squamous  Stratified squamous epithelium  Avascular  Keratinized  Keratinized (“Cornified”- hardened by keratin)  Dermis  Dense connective  Dense connective tissue Figure 4.3

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure  Deep to dermis is the hypodermis (subcutaneous)  Not part of the skin  Anchors skin  Anchors skin to underlying organs adipose  Composed mostly of adipose tissue  Shock absorber  Insulator  Loose Connective Tissue  Major blood vessels

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layer of Epidermis  Stratum basale  Cells undergoing mitosis  Deepest cell layer  Lies next to dermis  Stratum spinosum  Stratum granulosum

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layer of Epidermis  Stratum lucidum thick  Occurs only in thick skin (hairless)  Palms, soles  Stratum corneum dead  Shingle-like dead cells  20 – 30  20 – 30 cell layers thick  Shed constantly  New epidermis every days

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Melanin melanin  Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes yellowbrownblack  Color is yellow to (reddish) brown to black basale  Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale geneticssunlight  Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetics and exposure to sunlight UVDNA  Absorb UV radiation to protect DNA

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dermis  Two layers  Papillary layer (upper dermal region) fingerprints  Projections called dermal papillae (fingerprints)  Pain  Pain receptors  Touch  Touch receptors (Meissner’s corpuscles)  Capillary  Capillary loops  Reticular layer (deeper dermal region)  Blood vessels  Glandssweat & oil  Glands (sweat & oil)  Pressure  Pressure receptors (Pacinian corpuscles)

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Tone

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure Figure 4.4

29 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure Figure 4.4

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Normal Skin Color Determinants  Melanin  Yellow, brown or black  Yellow, brown or black pigments  Carotene  Orange-yellow  Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables  Hemoglobin  Red  Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries  Oxygen content  Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring  Cyanosis  Cyanosis – skin appears bluish due to low blood oxygen

31 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Albinism

32 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The eyes of an albino animal appear red because the colour of the red blood cells in the underlying retinal blood vessels shows through where there is no pigment to obscure it

33 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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36 Appendages of the Skin  Sebaceous glands oil ( sebum )  Produce oil ( sebum )  Lubricant for skin  Kills bacteria hair follicles  Most with ducts that empty into hair follicles puberty  Glands are activated at puberty  Acne  Acne – infection of sebaceous gland

37 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 06.d

38 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin  Sweat glands  Widely distributed in skin  Two types  Eccrine  Open via duct to pore on skin surface  Respond to elevated body temperature  Apocrine  Ducts empty into hair follicles  Respond to emotional stress

39 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sweat and its Function  Eccrine  Water, salt, vitamin C, wastes, lactic acid baterial  Acidic – inhibits baterial growth temperature  Aids in homeostasis of body temperature 7 Liters of water  May loose up to 7 Liters of water in sweat forehead, neck, and back  Common on forehead, neck, and back

40 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sweat and its Function  Apocrine  Fatty acids & proteins bacteria odor  Used as food by bacteria which then cause an odor  Axillary and genital  Axillary and genital areas puberty  Function at puberty

41 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin  Hair hair follicle  Produced by hair follicle epithelial cells  Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells  Melanocytes  Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color  Root  Root – in follicle  Shaft  Shaft – projects from surface Figure 4.7c

42 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hair Anatomy medulla  Central medulla  Cortex  Cortex surrounds medulla  Cuticle  Cuticle on outside of cortex keratinized  Most heavily keratinized Figure 4.7b

43 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Associated Hair Structures  Hair follicle  Dermal and epidermal  Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root  Arrector pilli  Smooth muscle  Sebaceous gland  Sweat gland  Dermal blood vessels  Dermal blood vessels nourish hair root Figure 4.7a

44 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Associated Hair Structures Figure 4.7a

45 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin  Nails epidermis  Scale-like modifications of the epidermis  Heavily keratinized nail bed  Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed  Responsible for growth pigment  Lack of pigment makes them colorless

46 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nail Structures  Free edge  Body  Lunula  Lunula – white, half moon; growth occurs  Root of nail  Eponychium  Eponychium – proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body Figure 4.9

47 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nail Structures Figure 4.9

48 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Homeostatic Imbalances  Infections  Athletes foot fungal infection  Caused by fungal infection  Boils and carbuncles bacterial infection  Caused by bacterial infection  Cold sores virus  Caused by virus

49 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Homeostatic Imbalances  Infections and allergies  Contact dermatitis allergic reaction  Exposures cause allergic reaction  Impetigo bacterial infection  Caused by bacterial infection  Psoriasis unknown  Cause is unknown trauma, infection, stress  Triggered by trauma, infection, stress

50 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Homeostatic Imbalances  Burns heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals  Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals  Associated dangers  Dehydration  Electrolyte imbalance  Circulatory shock

51 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Severity of Burns  First-degree burns epidermis  Only epidermis is damaged red and swollen  Skin is red and swollen  Second degree burns  Epidermis and upper dermis  Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged red with blisters  Skin is red with blisters  Third-degree burns entire skin layer  Destroys entire skin layer gray-white or black  Burn is gray-white or black

52 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Critical Burns  Burns are considered critical if: 25%  Over 25% of body has second degree burns 10%  Over 10% of the body has third degree burns face, hands, or feet  There are third degree burns of the face, hands, or feet

53 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer  Cancer – abnormal cell mass  Two types  Benign  Does not spread  Does not spread (encapsulated)  Malignant  Metastasized to other parts of the body  Metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body  Skin cancer  Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer

54 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types  Basal cell carcinoma  Least malignant  Most common type  Arises from statum basale  Squamous cell carcinoma  Arises from stratum spinosum  Metastasizes to lymph nodes  Early removal allows a good chance of cure

55 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types  Malignant melanoma  Most deadly of skin cancers  Cancer of melanocytes  Metastasizes rapidly to lymph and blood vessels  Detection uses ABCD rule

56 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 06.b

57 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings ABCD Rule Asymmetry  A = Asymmetry  Two sides of pigmented mole do not match Border irregularity  B = Border irregularity  Borders of mole are not smooth Color  C = Color  Different colors in pigmented area Diameter  D = Diameter  Spot is larger than 6 mm in diameter

58 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 06.ba

59 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 06.bb

60 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 06.bc


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