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BIOLOGY 252 Human Anatomy & Physiology

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1 BIOLOGY 252 Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapter 23 The Respiratory System: Lecture Notes

2 The Respiratory System
Cells continually use O2 & release CO2 Respiratory system designed for gas exchange Cardiovascular system transports gases in blood Failure of either system rapid cell death from O2 starvation

3 Respiratory System Anatomy
Nose Pharynx = throat Larynx = voicebox Trachea = windpipe Bronchi = airways Lungs Locations of infections upper respiratory tract is above vocal cords lower respiratory tract is below vocal cords

4 Nose - Internal Structures
Large chamber within the skull Roof is made up of ethmoid and floor is hard palate Internal nares (choanae) are openings to pharynx Nasal septum is composed of bone & cartilage Bony swelling or conchae on lateral walls See lab manual p – 1.17

5 Functions of the Nasal Structures
Olfactory epithelium for sense of smell Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells lines nasal cavity warms air due to high vascularity mucous moistens air & traps dust (cleanse) cilia move mucous towards pharynx Paranasal sinuses open into nasal cavity found in ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal & maxillary lighten skull & resonate voice

6 Pharynx Muscular tube (5 inch long) hanging from skull
skeletal muscle & mucous membrane Extends from internal nares to cricoid cartilage Functions passageway for food and air resonating chamber for speech production tonsil (lymphatic tissue) in the walls protects entryway into body Distinct regions -- nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx

7 Cartilages of the Larynx
Thyroid cartilage forms Adam’s apple Epiglottis - leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage during swallowing, larynx moves upward epiglottis bends to cover glottis Cricoid cartilage - ring of cartilage attached to top of trachea Pair of arytenoid cartilages sit upon cricoid many muscles responsible for their movement partially buried in vocal folds (true vocal cords) See lab manual – p

8 Larynx Cartilage & connective tissue tube Anterior to C4 to C6
Constructed of 3 single & 3 paired cartilages

9 Vocal Cords False vocal cords (ventricular folds) found above vocal folds (true vocal cords) True vocal cords attach to arytenoid cartilages

10 Trachea Size is 12 cm (5 in) long & 2.5 cm (1in) in diameter
Extends from larynx to T5 anterior to the esophagus and then splits into bronchi Layers mucosa = pseudostratified columnar with cilia & goblet cells submucosa = loose connective tissue & seromucous glands hyaline cartilage = 16 to 20 incomplete rings open side facing esophagus contains trachealis m. (smooth) internal ridge on last ring called carina adventitia binds it to other organs See lab manual p. 2.5 – 2.7

11 Trachea and Bronchial Tree
Full extent of airways is visible starting at the larynx and trachea

12 Histology of the Trachea
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium Hyaline cartilage as C-shaped structure closed by trachealis muscle

13 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Trachea The trachea extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Airway Epithelium Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells produce a moving mass of mucus.

15 Tracheostomy and Intubation Tracheotomy, syn. = Tracheostomy
Reestablishing airflow past an airway obstruction crushing injury to larynx or chest swelling that closes airway vomit or foreign object Tracheostomy is incision in trachea below cricoid cartilage if larynx is obstructed Intubation is passing a tube from mouth or nose through larynx and into trachea Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

16 Bronchi and Bronchioles
Primary bronchi supply each lung Secondary bronchi supply each lobe of the lungs (3 right + 2 left) Tertiary bronchi supply each bronchopulmonary segment Repeated branchings called bronchioles form a bronchial tree

17 Lung Volumes and Capacities
Tidal volume = amount air moved during quiet breathing MVR= minute ventilation is amount of air moved in a minute Reserve volumes ---- amount you can breathe either in or out above that amount of tidal volume Residual volume = 1200 mL permanently trapped air in system Vital capacity & total lung capacity are sums of the other volumes Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

18 Structures within a Lobule of Lung
Branchings of single arteriole, venule & bronchiole are wrapped by elastic CT Respiratory bronchiole simple squamous Alveolar ducts surrounded by alveolar sacs & alveoli sac is 2 or more alveoli sharing a common opening

19 Histology of Lung Tissue
Photomicrograph of lung tissue showing bronchioles, alveoli and alveolar ducts.

20 Cells Types of the Alveoli
Type I alveolar cells simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs Type II alveolar cells (septal cells) free surface has microvilli secrete alveolar fluid containing surfactant Alveolar dust cells wandering macrophages remove debris

21 Details of Respiratory Membrane
Find the 4 layers that comprise the respiratory membrane

22 Alveolar-Capillary Membrane
Respiratory membrane = 1/2 micron thick Exchange of gas from alveoli to blood 4 Layers of membrane to cross alveolar epithelial wall of type I cells alveolar epithelial basement membrane capillary basement membrane endothelial cells of capillary Vast surface area = handball court

23 Double Blood Supply to the Lungs
Deoxygenated blood arrives through pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle Bronchial arteries branch off of the aorta to supply oxygenated blood to lung tissue Venous drainage returns all blood to heart

24 Breathing or Pulmonary Ventilation
Air moves into lungs when pressure inside lungs is less than atmospheric pressure How is this accomplished? Air moves out of the lungs when pressure inside lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure = 1 atm or 760mm Hg

25 Boyle’s Law As the size of closed container decreases, pressure inside is increased The molecules have less wall area to strike so the pressure on each inch of area increases.

26 Dimensions of the Chest Cavity
Breathing in requires muscular activity & chest size changes Contraction of the diaphragm flattens the dome and increases the vertical dimension of the chest

27 Quiet Inspiration Diaphragm moves 1 cm & ribs lifted by external intercostal muscles and we inhale 500 ml of air If Diaphragm moves 10 cm & ribs are lifted accordingly Intrathoracic pressure falls and we inhale 2-3 liter of air.

28 Quiet Expiration Passive process with no muscle action
Elastic recoil & surface tension in alveoli pulls inward Alveolar pressure increases & air is pushed out

29 Labored Breathing Forced expiration Forced inspiration
abdominal mm force diaphragm up internal intercostals depress ribs Forced inspiration sternocleidomastoid, scalenes & pectoralis minor lift chest upwards as you gasp for air

30 Intrapleural pressures or Intrathoracic pressures (see text p
Intrapleural pressures or Intrathoracic pressures (see text p. 859) & Alevolar or Intrapulmponary pressures Always subatmospheric (756 mm Hg) As diaphragm contracts intrathoracic pressure decreases even more (754 mm Hg)

31 Alveolar Surface Tension
Thin layer of fluid in alveoli causes inwardly directed force = surface tension water molecules strongly attracted to each other Causes alveoli to remain as small as possible Detergent-like substance called surfactant produced by Type II alveolar cells lowers alveolar surface tension insufficient in premature babies so that alveoli collapse at end of each exhalation

32 Pneumothorax Pleural cavities are sealed cavities not open to the outside Injuries to the chest wall that let air enter the intrapleural space causes a pneumothorax collapsed lung on same side as injury surface tension and recoil of elastic fibers causes the lung to collapse Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

33 Compliance of the Lungs
Ease with which lungs & chest wall expand depends upon elasticity of lungs & surface tension Some diseases reduce compliance tuberculosis forms scar tissue pulmonary edema - fluid in lungs & reduced surfactant paralysis Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

34 Airway Resistance Resistance to airflow depends upon airway size
increase size of chest airways increase in diameter contract smooth muscles in airways decreases in diameter

35 Breathing Patterns Eupnea = normal quiet breathing (yu-p-ne a)
Apnea = temporary cessation of breathing (ap ne a) Dyspnea =difficult or labored breathing (disp-ne a) Tachypnea = rapid breathing (tak-ip-ne a) Diaphragmatic breathing = descent of diaphragm causes stomach to bulge during inspiration Costal breathing = just rib activity involved

36 Modified Respiratory Movements
Coughing deep inspiration, closure of glottis & strong expiration blasts air out to clear respiratory passages Hiccuping spasmodic contraction of diaphragm & quick closure of glottis produce sharp inspiratory sound Valsalva maneuver - forced exhalation against a closed glottis as may occur when lifting a heavy weight Chart of others on page 868

37 The Gas Laws Boyle’s Law – the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume (if temperature remains constant). Gay-Lussac’s Law – the pressure of a gas increases directly in proportion to its (absolute) temperature. Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

38 The Gas Laws Dalton’s Law – in a mixture of gasses, each gas exerts a partial pressure, proportional to its concentration. Henry’s Law – the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is directly proportional to its partial pressure, if temperature remains constant. Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

39 What is the Composition of Air?
Air = 20.93% O2, 79.04% N2 and 0.03% CO2 Alveolar air = 14% O2, 79% N2 and 5.2% CO2 Expired air = 16% O2, 79% N2 and 4.5% CO2 Anatomic dead space = 150 ml of 500 ml of tidal volume Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

40 Dalton’s Law In a mixture of gasses, each gas exerts a partial pressure, proportional to its concentration. Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all other gases were not present partial pressures denoted as p Total pressure is sum of all partial pressures atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg) = pO2 + pCO2 + pN2 + pH2O Thus in atmospheric air with a total pressure of 760 mm Hg, O2 which makes up 20.93% - has a partial pressure of 20.93/100 x 760 = mm Hg.

41 Henry’s Law The quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is directly proportional to its partial pressure, if temperature remains constant. OR The quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid depends upon the amount of gas present and its solubility coefficient

42 Partial Pressures of Respiratory Gases at Sea Level
Total H2O O CO N Partial pressure (mmHg) % in Dry Alveolar Arterial Venous Diffusion Gas dry air air air blood blood gradient Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

43 The Processes of Respiration
Pulmonary ventilation – or breathing, is the mechanical flow of air into (inhalation) and or out of (exhalation) the lungs External respiration – is the exchange of gases between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. In this process, pulmonary capillary blood gains O2 and loses CO2 Internal respiration – is the exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells. The blood loses O2 and gains CO2. Within cells, the metabolic reactions that consume O2 and give off CO2 during the production of ATP termed cellular respiration ___________________________________________________ Gas transport – is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the systemic tissues and the transport of CO2 from the systemic tissues to the lungs. Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

44 External Respiration Gases diffuse from areas of high partial pressure to areas of low partial pressure Exchange of gas between alveolar air & blood Deoxygenated blood becomes 100% saturated with O2 Compare gas movements in pulmonary capillaries to tissue capillaries

45 Rate of Diffusion of Gases
Depends upon partial pressure of gases in air pO2 at sea level is mm Hg 10,000 feet (~3000 m) is 110 mm Hg / 50,000 feet is 18 mm Hg Large surface area of our alveoli Diffusion distance is very small (0.5 µm) Solubility & molecular weight of gases O2 smaller molecule diffuses somewhat faster CO2 dissolves 24x more easily in water so net outward diffusion of CO2 is much faster

46 Internal Respiration Exchange of gases between blood & tissues
Conversion of oxygenated blood into deoxygenated Observe diffusion of O2 inward at rest 25% of available O2 enters cells during exercise more O2 is absorbed Observe diffusion of CO2 outward

47 Oxygen Transport in the Blood
Oxyhemoglobin contains 98.5% chemically combined oxygen and hemoglobin inside red blood cells Does not dissolve easily in water only 1.5% transported dissolved in blood (plasma)

48 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
CO from car exhaust & tobacco smoke Binds to the Hb heme group more successfully than O2 CO poisoning Treat by administering pure O2 Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

49 Carbon Dioxide Transport
Is carried by the blood in 3 ways dissolved in plasma combined with the globin part of Hb molecule forming carbaminohemoglobin as part of bicarbonate ion CO2 + H2O combine to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) that dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

50 Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve (Hemoglobin saturation and oxygen partial pressure)
Blood is almost fully saturated at pO2 of 60mm people OK at high altitudes & with some diseases Between 40 & 20 mm Hg, large amounts of O2 are released as in areas of need like contracting muscle

51 Acidity & Oxygen Affinity for Hb
As acidity increases, O2 affinity for Hb decreases Bohr effect H+ binds to hemoglobin & alters it O2 left behind in needy tissues

52 pCO2 & Oxygen Release As pCO2 rises with exercise, O2 is released more easily CO2 converts to carbonic acid & becomes H+ and bicarbonate ions & lowers pH.

53 Temperature & Oxygen Release
Metabolic activity & heat As temperature increases, more O2 is released

54 Role of the Respiratory Center
Respiration controlled by neurons in pons & medulla 3 groups of neurons medullary rhythmicity pneumotaxic apneustic centers

Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

56 Partial Pressures of Respiratory Gases at Sea Level
Total H2O O2 CO2 N Partial pressure (mmHg) % in Dry Alveolar Arterial Venous Diffusion Gas dry air air air blood blood gradient Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS

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