2 Female External Genitalia Vulva: everything that is externally visible (mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, urethral orifice, vaginal vestibule, perineal body)mons pubis: mound of fatty tissue above the pubic bonelabia majora: large, outer fatty folds of skin tissuelabia minora: inner folds of skin and erectile tissueclitoris: small, highly sensitive organglans: tip of the clitorisprepuce (clitoral hood): loose-fitting fold of skin covering the clitoral glans
3 Female External Genitalia vaginal vestibule: the cleft containing the vaginal and urethral openingsSkene’s glands: group of small mucous glands that open into vaginal vestibule (near urethra)Bartholin’s glands: two glands that open into vaginal vestibule (on either side of the vaginal opening) - thought to provide some lubrication, may emit a pheromonehymen: thin mucous membrane partially covering the vaginal openingperineum: tissue between the genital and anus.
6 Female Internal Genitalia Vagina: tubular organ connecting external genitals with uterusGrafenberg spot (g-spot):mass of erectile and glandular tissue surrounding the urethra just below the bladdersome women report that simulation to g-spot produces sexual arousal and orgasmuterus: hollow muscular organ - purpose to nurture developing fetuscervix: small lower portion of the uterus that projects into the vaginacervical os: small opening in the cervix allowing passage of fluids between the uterus and vaginamyometrium: layers of smooth muscle comprising the uterusendometrium: inner lining of the uterus that builds a rich blood supply and sloughs off the lining each month (if conception does not occur)
7 Female Internal Genitalia ovaries: female gonads - containing the immature female reproductive cellsovum: female reproduce cellfallopian tubes: thin flexible muscular structures connecting the ovaries with the uterus - passageway for the ovum to travel to the uteruscilia: tiny hairlike projections that line the fallopian tubes and propel the ovum towards the uterusfimbriae: fringelike projections that reach out to the ovary to draw a released ovum into the fallopian tube.
12 Female Internal Genitalia: Muscles Pelvic floor musclesIschiocavernosus: acts to drive blood into the body of the clitorisbulbocavernosus: helps to maintain the structure of the pelvic tissue and serves as a vaginal sphincter
16 Male External Genitalia penis: male copulatory organfrenulum: underside of the penis, between shaft and glansglans: enlarged conic structure at the tip of the peniscorona: raised rim or ridge of tissue that separates the glans from the shaftprepuce (forskin): loose-fitting retractable casing of skin that forms over the glanssmegma: accumulation of secretions on the penile glans from glands of foreskincircumcision: surgical procedure involving removal of the prepucescrotum: skin-covered pouch containing the testes
18 Male Internal Genitalia corpora cavernosa: two large and uppermost cylindrical masses of penile tissuecorpus spongiosum: lower, smaller cyhlindrical mass of tissue in the penis, contains the urethracrura: tapering part of the corpora cavernosa - forms the connection to the pubic boneTestes: oval, glandular organs contained in the scrotum - produce sperm, secrete male hormonesspermatic cord: suspends the testes - contains arteries, nerves, veins, vas deferensseminiferous tubules: tightly packed, convoluted structures in testicles, produce sperminterstitial cells (Leydig’s cells): located between seminiferous tubules, produce androgens
19 Male Internal Genitalia epididymis: tightly coiled tube lying along the top of each testis - stores spermatozoavas deferens: structure that transports spermatozoa from testes to urethraejaculatory ducts: short tubes that pass through prostate to urethra - passageway for semen and fluid from seminal vesiclesurethra: tube for transporting urine and semenseminal vesicles: secretory glandsprostate gland: secretes thin, milky, slightly alkaline fluid, rich in nutrients - into the seminal fluid - these secretions protect spermatozoa from acidic environment (male urethra, vagina)cowper’s gland: contribute alkaline fluid to semen
23 Cross-section of the Penis corpora cavernosa (upper left)corpus spongiosum (lower right)
24 Male Internal Genitalia sperm: male reproductive cellspermatogenesis: process of sperm productionspermatozoon: single spermspermatozoa: sperm, pluralacrosomal cap: covering of the head of the spermatozoon - contains enzymes that penetrate the outer cover of the ovumsemen: contains:seminal fluid: contains secretions from seminal vesicles, prostate gland, Cowper’s gland, and epididymis
30 Sexual Response Cycle Masters and Johnson Four-Stage Model excitement plateauorgasmrefractory period
31 Sexual Response Cycle: Excitement For both males and females excitement leads to an increase in pulse, heart rate, blood pressure and muscle tension. Similarly both sexes experience increase blood flow to the genitals and nipples.In females, the vagina becomes naturally lubricated, lengthens and widens, whilst the labia swell.In males, erection of the penis is the most obvious sign of excitment.
32 Sexual Response Cycle: Plateau Further increases in circulation and heart rate occur in both sexes, sexual pleasure increases with increased stimulation, muscle tension increases further.At this stage females show a number of effects. The areolae and labia further increase in size, the clitoris withdraws slightly and the Bartholin's glands produce further lubrication.Males may start to secrete seminal fluid and the testes rise closer to the body.
33 Sexual Response Cycle: Orgasm Orgasm is the conclusion of the plateau phase in a release of sexual tension. Both males and females experience quick cycles of muscle contraction of the anus and lower pelvic muscles, with women also experiencing uterine and vaginal contractions.Males ejaculate approximately 5-10ml of semen.
34 Sexual Response Cycle: Resolution The resolution stage occurs after orgasm and allows the muscles to relax, blood pressure to drop and the body to slow down from its excited state.Generally males experience a refractory period, meaning orgasm cannot be achieved again until time has passed. The penis meanwhile returns to a flaccid state. Females may not experience this refractory period and further stimulation may cause a return to the plateau stage. Otherwise, significant changes may also occur, such as the opening of the cervix and the reduction of blood flow to the genitals and nipples.