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The Respiratory System. (Review) Cellular Respiration Process by which energy from food molecules like glucose is transferred to ATP which is a usable.

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Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System. (Review) Cellular Respiration Process by which energy from food molecules like glucose is transferred to ATP which is a usable."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Respiratory System

2 (Review) Cellular Respiration Process by which energy from food molecules like glucose is transferred to ATP which is a usable form of energy to be used for cellular processes –Takes place in the Mitochondria –Also called “Internal Respiration” –Aerobic: when oxygen is present –Anaerobic: when oxygen supplies are low Produces fewer ATP (2 instead of 36) Produces lactic acid as a by product

3 Human Respiratory System Function: –to exchange gases between the blood and the external environment –Also called “External Respiration” –Take in oxygen –Get rid of carbon dioxide –Excess water also removed

4 A system of passageways connects lungs to outside air and permits air to enter the lungs and wastes to leave Pathway that air follows: Nose and Nasal Cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli Respiration Animation: 620305036844477802&t=Respiratory-System

5 Gases in the Bloodstream Blood leaving lungs, high in oxygen Blood entering lungs, high in carbon dioxide Oxygen carried mainly by hemoglobin in RBCs Carbon dioxide is dissolved in the blood plasma


7 Nose and Nasal Passages –Air enters and is warmed by blood flowing through capillaries near skin –Air is moistened and filtered by: hairs lining nostrils Cilia lining surfaces Mucous secretions that trap dust, pollen etc… The mucous and what it traps eventually dry out and form “boogers”


9 Sense of Smell

10 Pharynx: (throat) –Passageway for the air as it travels on towards trachea –Food also passes through here Larynx: –Contains the vocal cords, whose vibrations make speech possible –Clip showing woman’s vocal cords vibrating at high/low pitch: pOXecWC5Dw&safe=active pOXecWC5Dw&safe=active

11 Trachea: –Connects the pharynx with the bronchi –Tube is rigidly supported by cartilaginous ridges –When swallowing, the epiglottis covers the trachea preventing food from entering the “windpipe”

12 Trachea and bronchiole tubes are lined with a ciliated membrane. –Mucous secretions trap particles –Cilia sweep foreign particles back up into the pharynx where they are swallowed or coughed up Cleaning the Air We Breathe miEEluVlemQ&safe=active

13 –Why do we Cough? – 066c555347077350076077&t=Respiratory- System 066c555347077350076077&t=Respiratory- System

14 Bronchi: –2 branches off trachea that enter the lungs Bronchioles: –smaller and smaller tubes that eventually end in alveoli

15 Alveoli –The functional units for respiration in lungs –Thin walled sacs one cell thick –Surrounded by capillary network

16 –MicroAnatomy of the Lungs: Alveoli – 045c7b745d0a6d435f5245&t=Respiratory- System 045c7b745d0a6d435f5245&t=Respiratory- System

17 Alveoli and Gas Exchange Each alveolar sac is coated on the inside with a liquid called surfactant This liquid surface is necessary for gas exchange to take place Gas is exchanged by diffusion –Area of higher concentration to lower concentration –Type of passive transport –No energy required Oxygen diffuses from alveoli into surrounding capillaries Carbon dioxide and some water diffuses from capillaries into alveoli

18 –The Respiratory System: How it Works (3:30) – 5a5b076c436a5b690d0373&t=Respiratory- System 5a5b076c436a5b690d0373&t=Respiratory- System Make a Lung/Diaphragm Model H5p9k&safe=active H5p9k&safe=active

19 Mechanism of Breathing Controlled by your nervous system and by muscles of the diaphragm and ribcage

20 Lungs have no muscle tissue and cannot move by themselves They contract and expand due to pressure changes causes by the movement of the diaphragm and ribcage Normal breathing rate = 12-25 per minute

21 Inhale: –Rib cage rises as rib muscles contract –Diaphragm muscle lowers as it contracts –Space in your chest cavity increases and creates a lower air pressure space (vacuum) that causes gas from outside to rush in to lungs

22 Exhale: –Ribcage lowers –Diaphragm goes up as it relaxes –Chest volume decreases –Increased pressure on air inside lungs forces most of it out of alveoli Breathing Animation:

23 Control of Breathing –You can control it to some extent –Mostly it is an involuntary process –Controlled by respiratory center in the brain in medulla oblongata

24 How does your body know to speed up breathing rate during exercise? Chemoreceptors: –sensory tissue lining aorta and other large arteries sense amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in blood. –Send message to respiratory center in brain –Too much CO 2 = breath deeper and more frequently

25 In addition the presence of lactic acid from heavy exercise can also stimulate the respiratory centers of the brain

26 Diseases of the Respiratory System Asthma: –severe allergic reaction causes wheezing, coughing –bronchioles squeeze air passages closed during attack

27 Pneumonia: –alveoli become filled with fluid preventing gas exchange –caused by bacterial infection

28 Tuberculosis: –Lung infection caused by bacteria. –Highly contagious –Chest pain, prolonged cough (may cough up blood) –May cause extensive scarring in the upper lobes of the lungs.

29 Cystic Fibrosis: genetic disorder (recessive) –Abnormally thick, sticky mucus in lungs –Difficult for cilia to remove mucus –Frequent chest infections, coughing, shortness of breath

30 Lung Injury Collapsed Lung: due to puncture of lung cavity

31 Asbestosis: –Asbestos fibers get trapped in lungs –Fibers irritate lung tissue creating scarring and initiating a chronic inflammatory response –No cure

32 Smoking and the Respiratory System Chemicals in tobacco smoke damage structures throughout the respiratory tract. –Nicotine: addictive stimulant that increases heart rate and blood pressure and can increase risk of heart attack –Carbon Monoxide: poisonous gas that blocks hemoglobin from binding with oxygen –Tar: contains at least 60 compounds known to cause cancer. Ex: arsenic, formaldehyde


34 Smoke paralyzes cilia –One cigarette stops their motion for about 20 minutes Mucus laden with particles has trouble leaving the airways resulting in “smokers cough”

35 Diseases Caused by Smoking Chronic Bronchitis: –bronchial tubes become irritated and swollen –Passageways swell and clog with mucus –Heavy coughing and difficulty breathing

36 Emphysema: –Fragile walls of alveoli become damaged, scarred and broken Less surface area for gas exchange –Lungs become less elastic –Get shortness of breath –Damage to lungs cannot be fixed

37 Lung Cancer: –Tumors crowd out functional surfaces for gas exchange and steal blood supply –By the time it is detected, it has usually spread to body –Usually caused by smoking

38 Adaptations for Gas Exchange in Animals Need moist thin walled respiratory surface –for O 2 and CO 2 exchange More surface area = more gas exchange

39 Protists and Small Multicellular Organisms Amoeba, Paramecium, Hydra: –Most cells are in direct contact with environment –Diffusion of gases occurs across cell membrane directly

40 Aquatic Animals –Most often exchange gases through gills –Thin layers of tissue richly supplied with blood vessels –Provide large surface area for gas exchange –There is much less dissolved oxygen in water than in air Air = 20%, water <1% –Must constantly move large amount of water over respiratory surface by pumping or swimming

41 Earthworm Thin outer skin is the respiratory surface –Below skin are capillaries carrying blood with hemoglobin Live in moist soil and constantly secretes mucus to keep skin moist –If exposed to air and dries out it will suffocate

42 Grasshopper System of tracheal tubes for gas exchange –Branching air tubes carry air directly to cells –Muscle contractions pump air in and out of tubes Spiracles: outside openings that lead to tracheal tubes


44 Review Website: Review of Respiration: Review Website with Practice Problems Interactive Anatomy Website: Interactive Practice: –Label the parts of the Respiratory System –

45 Respiratory System: (25 minutes Coronet Film) &list=PL2FC882112DF30CFB&index=24&safe= active &list=PL2FC882112DF30CFB&index=24&safe= active Bill Nye: The Respiratory System (25 minutes) U&list=PLORF26ONn8gSytdZkl1TlWZxsDwJG- 6vN&safe=active U&list=PLORF26ONn8gSytdZkl1TlWZxsDwJG- 6vN&safe=active

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