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EPITHELIAL TISSUE. Tissue - group of cells with similar structure and function 4 types –Epithelial –Connective –Muscular –Nervous Organs contain several.

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Presentation on theme: "EPITHELIAL TISSUE. Tissue - group of cells with similar structure and function 4 types –Epithelial –Connective –Muscular –Nervous Organs contain several."— Presentation transcript:


2 Tissue - group of cells with similar structure and function 4 types –Epithelial –Connective –Muscular –Nervous Organs contain several tissue types –Arrangement determines structure and function

3 Epithelial Tissue or epithelium Consists of cells with little extracellular fluid between them Covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, hollow organs, and ducts, and forms glands Functions: protection, absorption, filtration, secretion

4 Special Characteristics Cells fit very closely together to form a continuous sheet Cells held together by cell junctions ( true for epithelial cells, some muscles and nerve cells) Apical surface Basement membrane Avascular Has a nerve supply High capacity for renewal by cell division

5 Classification of epithelial tissue CELL SHAPE Squamous ( SKW A mus ) Cuboidal columnar CELL ARRANGEMENT Simple stratified

6 TYPES OF EPITHELIAL Simple squamous Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar Pseudostratified columnar / pseudostratified ciliated columnar Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified cuboidal / columnar Transitional eipthelium

7 SIMPLE SQUAMOUS Thin single layer Rests on basement membrane Functions: filtration, exchange Location: walls of capillaries, air sacs Forms serous (SIR –us) membranes

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10 SIMPLE CUBOIDAL Single layer Function: secretion and absorption Found in glands and their ducts Ex. Salivary glands, Forms walls of kidney tubules and covers surface of ovaries


12 SIMPLE COLUMNAR Single layer of tall cells Function: protection, secretion, absorption Location: lines entire digestive tract from stomach to anus, lining of uterus Contains goblet cells –Forms mucous membranes Contains microvilli – aid in absorption –Small intestines Some may be ciliated


14 PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR Cells are of different heights Cell nuclei are of different lengths Function: absorption, excretion


16 Pseudostratified ciliated columnar Lines respiratory tract Mucus traps small debris Cilia propel the mucus upward Move oocytes through the uterine tubes


18 STRATIFIED Two or more cell layers Names for the type of cells at the apical layer FUNCTION: protection of underlying tissues in areas where there is considerable wear and tear.

19 STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS Most common of the stratified Apical area is squamous cells Basement area is cuboidal or columnar Function: protection Found in high friction areas


21 STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL / COLUMNAR Rare in body Found mainly in ducts of large glands

22 TRANSITIONAL EIPTHELIUM Found in the lining of the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra Tissue can stretch


24 Glandular Epithelium Makes up glands The cells in the glands produce a secretion

25 TWO TYPES ENDOCRINE Secretion is released into the blood stream ductless Examples - pituitary, thymus, pineal, thyroid EXOCRINE Secretion is released through a duct on to the body’s surface or into hollow organ Most numerous Goblet cells Examples – sweat/oil glands, glands that make digestive enzymes, mammary glands


27 CELL CONNECTIONS Adhesion junction Tight junction Gap junction




31 CELL MEMBRANE CONTINUED Plasma membrane Short chains of sugars –plycoproteins –glycolipids Cell identity markers


33 BODY MEMBRANES Epithelial membranes –cutaneous membrane - skin –mucous membrane –serous membrane Connective tissue membranes –synovial membranes

34 MUCOUS MEMBRANES Composed of epithelium tissue lines all body cavities that open to the exterior –stratified squamous –simple columnar continuously bathed in secretions (mucous) –except urinary mucosae - urine

35 MUCOUS MEMBRANES CONTINUED Functions –Protection Traps dust Prevents destruction of stomach lining by acid –lubrication –can be modified for absorption or secretion


37 SEROUS MEMBRANES Simple squamous epithelium on a layer of connective tissue Lines body cavities that do not open to the exterior occurs in pairs

38 PAIRS OF SEROUS MEMBRANES Parietal Visceral Serous fluid Names –peritoneum –pleura –pericardium




42 Internet sites Internet Atlas of Histology – JayDoc – eb/ Lumen Histology – isto_frames

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