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Bloodborne Pathogens.

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Presentation on theme: "Bloodborne Pathogens."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bloodborne Pathogens

2 What Are Bloodborne Pathogens?
Microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria that are carried in blood and can cause disease in people Transmitted through contact with blood or other bodily fluids Mode of transmission: Human blood Semen Vaginal secretions Cerebrospinal fluid Synovial fluid

3 Bloodborne Pathogen Transmission
Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted through contact with infected human blood and other body fluids such as Semen Vaginal secretions Cerebrospinal fluid Synovial fluid Pleural fluid Peritoneal fluid Amniotic fluid Saliva

4 Skin Provides a Barrier
Unbroken skin forms an impervious barrier against bloodborne pathogens. However, infected blood can enter your system through Open sores Cuts Abrasions Acne Any sort of damaged or broken skin such as sunburn or blister

5 Mucous Membranes Bloodborne pathogens may also be
transmitted through the mucous membranes of the Eyes Nose Mouth

6 Types of Bloodborne Pathogens
Most significant— Hepatitis B (HBV) HIV Also— Hepatitis C (HCV) Hepatitis A & D Syphilis

7 If you are exposed… Wash the exposed area thoroughly with soap and running water Use non-abrasive, antibacterial soap Flush mouth, nose, eyes for 15 minutes if blood is splashed in mucous membranes Remove clothing that is contaminated as soon as possible & place in approved container Report exposure to your supervisor Fill out an exposure report form Request blood testing & Hepatitis B vaccination

8 Hepatitis B Virus

9 Hepatitis B Virus is a virus that causes infection and inflammation of the liver is transmitted primarily through “blood to blood” contact can lead to serious conditions such as cirrhosis & liver cancer can survive in dried blood for up to seven days

10 HBV Transmission Infected blood and body fluids
In infected persons, HBV can be found in: Blood Body tissue Saliva Semen Vaginal secretions Urine Breast milk

11 HBV Transmission in the Workplace
Puncture wounds from sharps Contaminated body fluids entering: An opening or break in the skin Splashing into mucous membranes—eyes, nose, mouth

12 HBV Transmission Outside the Workplace
Unprotected sex Intravenous drug use (sharing needles) Blood transfusions

13 HBV Symptoms Mild flu-like symptoms Fatigue Weakness Nausea
Abdominal pain Headache Fever Possible jaundice Darkened urine

14 Hepatitis B Vaccinations
There is no cure or specific treatment Many people develop antibodies to fight the disease which may prevent future infection Employees who have routine exposure to bloodborne pathogens (doctors, nurses, first aid responders, etc) shall be offered the Hepatitis B vaccine series at no cost to themselves unless: They have previously received the vaccine series Antibody testing has revealed they are immune The vaccine is contraindicated for medical reasons

15 Vaccination Process Series of three shots
Second shot is given one month after the first Third shot follows five months after the second This series gradually builds up the body’s immunity to the Hepatitis virus Given in the deltoid muscle of upper arm

16 Do not take the vaccine if:
You are allergic to yeast You are pregnant or planning to become pregnant within the year You are ill (cold, flu, or on medication) on your appointment date You are in doubt due to other medical issues, concerns, or complications (see your physician)


18 Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV is the virus that leads to AIDS HIV depletes the immune system HIV does not survive well outside the body There is still no vaccine available

19 Transmission of HIV HIV is spread when infected blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk gets into the bloodstream of another person: Sexual contact Sharing needles Pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding Workplace exposure to blood and/or body fluids

20 Transmission of HIV HIV is NOT spread through: Casual contact Saliva
Sweat Spit Tears Air Insects

21 HIV Symptoms Symptoms of HIV infection can vary, but often include:
Weakness Fever Sore throat Nausea Headaches Diarrhea White coating on tongue Weight loss Swollen lymph glands

22 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Development of opportunistic infections that do not usually infect people with a healthy immune system The signs and symptoms depend on the type of infection Swollen lymph glands in the neck, underarm, and groin area Recurrent fever Persistent headaches and night sweats Constant fatigue Persistent diarrhea Without treatment, a person could die from a simple infection

23 Hepatitis C (HCV)

24 General Facts About Hepatitis C
Identified in 1989 One of most common causes of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and cancer Most commonly occurs in people who have received blood transfusions before 1992 shared needles had tattoos had body piercing Risk of sexual transmission appears to be small No evidence that it can be transmitted by casual contact, through foods, or by coughing/sneezing Transmission from mother to child appears to be uncommon

25 Hepatitis C The virus is very robust
The virus can remain undetected in the body for years Most Hepatitis C infections become chronic and lead to liver disease and liver failure There is no vaccine for Hepatitis C

26 Symptoms of HCV Appetite loss Fatigue Nausea Vomiting
Vague stomach pain Muscle and joint pain Jaundice yellowing of skin yellowing of the whites of the eyes dark urine

27 Hepatitis A and D HAV HDV Most common in children
Often spread by close personal contact or poor hygiene Unprotected sexual intercourse HDV Occurs from complications from HBV

28 Bloodborne Pathogens Standards

29 CDC Centers for Disease Control Organization within federal government
Monitors outbreaks of infections Advises affected groups on how to handle situations Control the spread of diseases

30 OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Administration
Federal agency develops regulations for employees whose jobs may put them at risk of bloodborne pathogen exposure Requires each workplace to develop and keep hands on exposure control plan Defines staff duties, documentation of exposure, personal protective equipment, etc

31 OSHA Mandates Exposure control plan be on hand
Training of staff about bloodborne pathogens Documentation and reporting of all exposures Personal protective equipment be available to staff Hepatitis B vaccine be offered to all at-risk staff Special containers be used for biohazardous materials and sharps Staff follow standard precautions Proper disinfection techniques be used to clean tools and work surfaces

32 Bloodborne Pathogens Rule
Published 1992 Clear provisions for employers regarding infection control practices Intent to eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials

33 Methods of Compliance


35 Observe Universal Precautions
Infection control guidelines designed to protect workers from exposure to diseases spread by blood and certain body fluids. All patients should be assumed to be infectious for bloodborne diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis B.

36 Universal Precautions
Wash hands before and after all patient or specimen contact Treat the blood of all patients as potentially infectious Treat all linen soiled with blood or body secretions as potentially infectious Wear gloves if contact with blood or body fluids is possible Immediately place used syringes in a nearby impermeable container; do not recap or manipulate needles or sharps in any way Wear protective eyewear and mask if splatter with blood or body fluids is possible Wear a mask if there is a risk of infection by TB or other airborne organisms

37 Personal Protective Equipment

38 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
PPE provides protection against exposure to infectious materials and must be routinely used when contact with blood or body fluids is anticipated Selection of PPE is task oriented PPE is appropriate when under normal conditions it prevents blood and body fluids from reaching an employee’s work clothes, street clothes, undergarments skin, mouth, eyes, other mucus membranes

39 Examples of PPE Gloves Gowns, aprons, sleeves Laboratory coats
Face shields or masks Eye protection Mouthpieces Resuscitation bags, pocket masks Foot protection

40 Gloves Gloves should be made of latex, nitril, rubber, or other water impervious material Inspect gloves before use Double gloving can provide an additional layer of protection If you have cuts or sores on your hands, you should cover these with a bandage or similar protection as an additional precaution before donning your gloves Don’t touch the outside of used gloves

41 Removing Contaminated Gloves
PINCH one glove back by the cuff until it comes off inside out. Discard or cup in the palm of your gloved hand.

42 Removing Contaminated Gloves
HOOK a finger of your bare hand inside the cuff of the remaining glove PULL BACK so this glove also comes off inside-out with the first glove tucked inside it WASH HANDS!

43 Rules to Follow Treat all blood or potentially infectious body fluids as if they are contaminated Always wear personal protective equipment in exposure situations Replace PPE that is torn or punctured Remove PPE before leaving work area Properly disinfect or dispose of used PPE Wash hands immediately after removing PPE

44 Hand Washing Technique

45 Wash Hands When visibly soiled After using the bathroom
After removing gloves After blowing your nose After sneezing in your hands Before and after eating, handling food, drinking or smoking

46 Wash Hands Before and after assisting a child in using the toilet
After diaper changes After contact with runny noses, vomit, or saliva Before feeding children After handling pets, animals, or animal waste After handling garbage

47 Technique for Hand Washing
Remove rings and watches before washing If hands-free dispenser is not available, dispense paper towels before washing Hand should be positioned lower than the arms to avoid contamination


49 Decontamination Procedures

50 Decontamination & Sterilization
All surfaces, tools, equipment and other objects that come in contact with blood or potentially infectious materials must be decontaminated and sterilized as soon as possible. Equipment and tools must be cleaned and decontaminated before servicing or being put back to use

51 Decontamination Solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) Diluted between 1:10 and 1:100 with water Standard recommendation is to use at least a quarter cup of bleach per one gallon of water Use Lysol or some other EPA-registered tuberculoid disinfectant. Check the label of all disinfectants to make sure they meet this requirements

52 Medical Waste

53 Signs & Labels Warning labels must be placed on containers
of regulated waste, refrigerators and freezers containing blood or other potentially infectious material and other containers used to store, transport, or ship blood or other potentially infectious material

54 Regulated Medical Waste
Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious materials Contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed Items that are caked with dried blood or other potentially infectious materials

55 Regulated Medical Waste
Red bags and sharps containers are provided for the collection of regulated medical waste A sharps container, red bag, and storage box should be available in the Nurse’s and/or Custodian’s office

56 Biohazard Containers

57 Requirements for Handling Laundry
Handle contaminated laundry as little as possible, with minimal agitation Place wet contaminated laundry in leak-proof labeled or color-coded containers before transport; use red bags or bags marked with biohazard symbol Wear appropriate PPE when handling and/or sorting contaminated laundry

58 Employee Determination

59 Exposure Determination
Each principal/custodian/supervisor who has employees with occupational exposure must prepare an exposure determination. Must contain: A list of all job classifications in which all employees in those job classifications have occupational exposure A list of job classifications in which some employees have occupational exposure

60 All Employees at Risk of Exposure
School nurses School Aides who work with the developmentally disabled Lifeguards Security Guards Health Aides Custodial Cleaners

61 Some Employees at Risk of Exposure
Principals Assistant Principals Laboratory Teachers Custodians Designated CPR/First Aid Responders Physical Education Teachers

62 Occupational Exposure Employees
Will receive specialized training annually Will be offered the Hepatitis B vaccination series Will be provided with post-exposure evaluation and follow-up in the case of an exposure incident Will be provided with personal protective equipment

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