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The following types of connective tissue are covered in this activity: 1.Loose (areolar) connective tissue (delicate thin layers between tissues; present.

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Presentation on theme: "The following types of connective tissue are covered in this activity: 1.Loose (areolar) connective tissue (delicate thin layers between tissues; present."— Presentation transcript:

1 The following types of connective tissue are covered in this activity: 1.Loose (areolar) connective tissue (delicate thin layers between tissues; present in all mucous membranes) 2.Adipose tissue (fat) 3.Dense connective tissue (tendons/ligaments) 4.Hyaline cartilage (nose/ends of long bones/ribs) 5.Elastic cartilage (outer ear/epiglottis) 6.Fibrocartilage (between vertebrae/knee joints/pubic joint) 7.Bone (skeletal system) 8Blood (bloodstream)

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 4.1 Comparison of Classes of Connective Tissues (1 of 2)

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 4.1 Comparison of Classes of Connective Tissues (2 of 2)

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8a Connective tissues. (a) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, areolar Description: Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells. Function: Wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid. Location: Widely distributed under epithelia of body, e.g., forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries. Photomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, a soft packaging tissue of the body (300x). Epithelium Lamina propria Fibroblast nuclei Elastic fibers Collagen fibers

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.7 Areolar connective tissue: A prototype (model) connective tissue. Macrophage Fibroblast Lymphocyte Fat cell Mast cell Neutrophil Capillary Cell typesExtracellular matrix Fibers Collagen fiber Elastic fiber Reticular fiber Ground substance

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8b Connective tissues. (b) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adipose Description: Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet. Function: Provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs. Location: Under skin in the hypodermis; around kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts. Photomicrograph: Adipose tissue from the subcutaneous layer under the skin (350x). Nucleus of fat cell Vacuole containing fat droplet Adipose tissue Mammary glands

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8c Connective tissues. (c) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, reticular Description: Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network. Function: Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages. Location: Lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen). Photomicrograph: Dark-staining network of reticular connective tissue fibers forming the internal skeleton of the spleen (350x). Spleen White blood cell (lymphocyte) Reticular fibers

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8d Connective tissues. (d) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense regular Description: Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast. Function: Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction. Location: Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses. Photomicrograph: Dense regular connective tissue from a tendon (500x). Shoulder joint Ligament Tendon Collagen fibers Nuclei of fibroblasts

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8e Connective tissues. (e) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense irregular Description: Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast. Function: Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength. Location: Fibrous capsules of organs and of joints; dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract. Photomicrograph: Dense irregular connective tissue from the dermis of the skin (400x). Collagen fibers Nuclei of fibroblasts Fibrous joint capsule

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8f Connective tissues. (f) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, elastic Description: Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of elastic fibers. Function: Allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration. Location: Walls of large arteries; within certain ligaments associated with the vertebral column; within the walls of the bronchial tubes. Elastic fibers Aorta Heart Photomicrograph: Elastic connective tissue in the wall of the aorta (250x).

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8g Connective tissues. (g) Cartilage: hyaline Description: Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacunae. Function: Supports and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress. Location: Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx. Photomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from the trachea (750x). Costal cartilages Chondrocyte in lacuna Matrix

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8h Connective tissues. (h) Cartilage: elastic Description: Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix. Function: Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility. Location: Supports the external ear (pinna); epiglottis. Photomicrograph: Elastic cartilage from the human ear pinna; forms the flexible skeleton of the ear (800x). Chondrocyte in lacuna Matrix

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8i Connective tissues. (i) Cartilage: fibrocartilage Description: Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate. Function: Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock. Location: Intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint. Photomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of an intervertebral disc (125x). Special staining produced the blue color seen. Intervertebral discs Chondrocytes in lacunae Collagen fiber

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8j Connective tissues. (j) Others: bone (osseous tissue) Description: Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae. Very well vascularized. Function: Bone supports and protects (by enclosing); provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis). Location: Bones Photomicrograph: Cross-sectional view of bone (125x). Lacunae Lamella Central canal

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.8k Connective tissues. (k) Others: blood Description: Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma). Function: Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances. Location: Contained within blood vessels. Photomicrograph: Smear of human blood (1860x); two white blood cells (neutrophil in upper left and lymphocyte in lower right) are seen surrounded by red blood cells. Neutrophil Red blood cells Lymphocyte Plasma

16 Given the previous outline and examples Can you name? First, the tissue type Second, where in the body the tissue is found

17 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? delicate thin layers between tissues; present in all mucous membranes Loose (areolar) connective tissue

18 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? Adipose tissue fat

19 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? Dense connective tissue tendons; ligaments

20 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? Hyaline cartilage nose; ends of long bones; ribs

21 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? Elastic cartilage outer ear; epiglottis

22 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? Fibrocartilage between vertebrae; knee joints; pubic joint

23 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? Bone skeletal system

24 What kind of tissue does this represent? Where in the body can you find this tissue? Blood bloodstream


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