Presentation on theme: "The following types of connective tissue are covered in this activity:"— Presentation transcript:
1The following types of connective tissue are covered in this activity: Loose (areolar) connective tissue (delicate thin layers betweentissues; present in all mucous membranes)2. Adipose tissue (fat)3. Dense connective tissue (tendons/ligaments)4. Hyaline cartilage (nose/ends of long bones/ribs)5. Elastic cartilage (outer ear/epiglottis)6. Fibrocartilage (between vertebrae/knee joints/pubic joint)7. Bone (skeletal system)8 Blood (bloodstream)
2Table 4.1 Comparison of Classes of Connective Tissues (1 of 2)
3Table 4.1 Comparison of Classes of Connective Tissues (2 of 2)
4Figure 4.8a Connective tissues. (a) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, areolarDescription: Gel-like matrix with allthree fiber types; cells: fibroblasts,macrophages, mast cells, and somewhite blood cells.ElasticfibersFunction: Wraps and cushionsorgans; its macrophages phagocytizebacteria; plays important role ininflammation; holds and conveystissue fluid.CollagenfibersLocation: Widely distributed underepithelia of body, e.g., forms laminapropria of mucous membranes;packages organs; surroundscapillaries.FibroblastnucleiEpitheliumPhotomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, asoft packaging tissue of the body (300x).Laminapropria
6Figure 4.8b Connective tissues. (b) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, adiposeDescription: Matrix as in areolar,but very sparse; closely packedadipocytes, or fat cells, havenucleus pushed to the side by largefat droplet.Function: Provides reserve foodfuel; insulates against heat loss;supports and protects organs.Nucleus offat cellLocation: Under skin in thehypodermis; around kidneys andeyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts.AdiposetissueVacuolecontainingfat dropletPhotomicrograph: Adipose tissue from thesubcutaneous layer under the skin (350x).Mammaryglands
7Figure 4.8c Connective tissues. (c) Connective tissue proper: loose connective tissue, reticularDescription: Network of reticularfibers in a typical loose groundsubstance; reticular cells lie on thenetwork.Function: Fibers form a soft internalskeleton (stroma) that supports othercell types including white blood cells,mast cells, and macrophages.White bloodcell(lymphocyte)Location: Lymphoid organs (lymphnodes, bone marrow, and spleen).ReticularfibersSpleenPhotomicrograph: Dark-staining network of reticularconnective tissue fibers forming the internal skeletonof the spleen (350x).
8Figure 4.8d Connective tissues. (d) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense regularDescription: Primarily parallelcollagen fibers; a few elastic fibers;major cell type is the fibroblast.CollagenfibersFunction: Attaches muscles tobones or to muscles; attaches bonesto bones; withstands great tensilestress when pulling force is appliedin one direction.Location: Tendons, mostligaments, aponeuroses.Nuclei offibroblastsShoulderjointLigamentPhotomicrograph: Dense regular connectivetissue from a tendon (500x).Tendon
9Figure 4.8e Connective tissues. (e) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, dense irregularDescription: Primarilyirregularly arranged collagenfibers; some elastic fibers;major cell type is the fibroblast.Nuclei offibroblastsFunction: Able to withstandtension exerted in manydirections; provides structuralstrength.Location: Fibrous capsules oforgans and of joints; dermis ofthe skin; submucosa ofdigestive tract.CollagenfibersFibrousjointcapsulePhotomicrograph: Dense irregularconnective tissue from the dermis of theskin (400x).
10Figure 4.8f Connective tissues. (f) Connective tissue proper: dense connective tissue, elasticDescription: Dense regularconnective tissue containing a highproportion of elastic fibers.Function: Allows recoil of tissuefollowing stretching; maintainspulsatile flow of blood througharteries; aids passive recoil of lungsfollowing inspiration.Elastic fibersLocation: Walls of large arteries;within certain ligaments associatedwith the vertebral column; within thewalls of the bronchial tubes.AortaPhotomicrograph: Elastic connective tissue inthe wall of the aorta (250x).Heart
11Figure 4.8g Connective tissues. (g) Cartilage: hyalineDescription: Amorphous but firmmatrix; collagen fibers form animperceptible network; chondroblastsproduce the matrix and when mature(chondrocytes) lie in lacunae.Function: Supports and reinforces;has resilient cushioning properties;resists compressive stress.Location: Forms most of theembryonic skeleton; covers the endsof long bones in joint cavities; formscostal cartilages of the ribs; cartilagesof the nose, trachea, and larynx.Chondrocytein lacunaMatrixCostalcartilagesPhotomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from thetrachea (750x).
12Figure 4.8h Connective tissues. (h) Cartilage: elasticDescription: Similar to hyalinecartilage, but more elastic fibersin matrix.Function: Maintains the shapeof a structure while allowinggreat flexibility.Chondrocytein lacunaLocation: Supports the externalear (pinna); epiglottis.MatrixPhotomicrograph: Elastic cartilage fromthe human ear pinna; forms the flexibleskeleton of the ear (800x).
13Figure 4.8i Connective tissues. (i) Cartilage: fibrocartilageDescription: Matrix similar tobut less firm than that in hyalinecartilage; thick collagen fiberspredominate.Function: Tensile strengthwith the ability to absorbcompressive shock.Location: Intervertebral discs;pubic symphysis; discs of kneejoint.Chondrocytesin lacunaeIntervertebraldiscsCollagenfiberPhotomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of anintervertebral disc (125x). Special stainingproduced the blue color seen.
14Figure 4.8j Connective tissues. (j) Others: bone (osseous tissue)Description: Hard, calcifiedmatrix containing many collagenfibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae.Very well vascularized.CentralcanalFunction: Bone supports andprotects (by enclosing);provides levers for the musclesto act on; stores calcium andother minerals and fat; marrowinside bones is the site for bloodcell formation (hematopoiesis).LacunaeLamellaLocation: BonesPhotomicrograph: Cross-sectional viewof bone (125x).
15Figure 4.8k Connective tissues. (k) Others: bloodDescription: Red and whiteblood cells in a fluid matrix(plasma).PlasmaFunction: Transport ofrespiratory gases, nutrients,wastes, and other substances.NeutrophilLocation: Contained withinblood vessels.Red bloodcellsLymphocytePhotomicrograph: Smear of human blood (1860x); twowhite blood cells (neutrophil in upper left and lymphocytein lower right) are seen surrounded by red blood cells.
16Given the previous outline and examples Can you name?First, the tissue typeSecond, where in the body the tissue is found
17What kind of tissue does this represent? Loose (areolar) connective tissueWhere in the body can you find this tissue?delicate thin layers between tissues; present in all mucous membranes
18What kind of tissue does this represent? Adipose tissueWhere in the body can you find this tissue?fat
19What kind of tissue does this represent? Dense connective tissueWhere in the body can you find this tissue?tendons; ligaments
20nose; ends of long bones; ribs What kind of tissue does this represent?Hyaline cartilageWhere in the body can you find this tissue?nose; ends of long bones; ribs
21What kind of tissue does this represent? Elastic cartilageWhere in the body can you find this tissue?outer ear; epiglottis
22What kind of tissue does this represent? FibrocartilageWhere in the body can you find this tissue?between vertebrae; knee joints; pubic joint
23What kind of tissue does this represent? BoneWhere in the body can you find this tissue?skeletal system
24What kind of tissue does this represent? BloodWhere in the body can you find this tissue?bloodstream