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Chapter 13 Digestive tract. ---Digestive system: Digestive tract Digestive gland.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Digestive tract. ---Digestive system: Digestive tract Digestive gland."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Digestive tract

2 ---Digestive system: Digestive tract Digestive gland

3 1. Components of digestive tract ---oral cavity ---pharynx ---esophagus ---stomach ---small intestine ---large intestine

4 2. General plan of digestive tract ---Except for oral cavity and pharynx, all other organs share a similar histological plan

5 1) mucosa ---epithelium: stratified squamous epi.: protecting simple columnar epi,: digestion and absorption ---lamina propria: LCT-compact CT: contain more cells and fiber BV, LV-capillaries Lymphoid T glands: structures formed by invagination of epi. into lamina propria ---muscularis mucosa: a thin layer of SM

6 2) submucosa: more dense CT small artery and vein, LV glands (esophagus and duodenum) submucosa N plexus: -multipolar N -unmyelinated NF -function: regulate the contract of SM and secreting of gland *Plica: projection of mucosa and submucosa

7 3) tunica muscularis smooth muscle skeletal muscle inner circular and outer longitudinal *Nerve plexus: regulate the movement of M

8 4) tunica adventitia: CT serosa: CT + mesothelium fibrosa: LCT

9 3. Esophagus 1) mucosa: epithelium: stratified squamous epi. lamina propria: CT muscularis mucosa: longitudinal arranged SM 2) submucosa: LCT esophageal gland: mucous gland

10 3) muscularis: inner circular and outer longitudinal upper 1/3: skeletal muscle middle 1/3: mixed of skeletal M and smooth muscle lower 1/3: smooth muscle 4)adventitia: fibrosa

11 4. Stomach ---dilated part ---store food temporarily ---digest protein primarily ---absorb part of water and Ions

12 1) Mucosa: ---plica-longitudinal ---shallow ditch- gastric area (2-6mm) ---gastric pit- small depressions

13 ① epithelium: simple columnar epi surface mucous cell: -tall columnar -N ovoid, basally-located -mucinogen granule -tight junction -high HCO 3 - undissolved mucus less endocrine cell


15 ② lamina propria: CT contains fibroblast, LC, plasma cell, mast cell and eosinophil, SM gastric gland -fundic gland cardiac gland: mucous gland pyloric gland: mucous gland


17 * Fundic gland -long, branch tube liked gland: /neck, body and basa -five types of cells can be seen


19 a. chief cell or zymogenic cell ---structure: LM: columnar Round, basally-located Nucleus cytoplasm: /basal-basophilic /apical-zymogen granules EM: RER, Golgi apparatus ---function: secret pepsinogen


21 b. parietal cell or oxyntic cell ---structure: LM: large, pyramidal or spherical round centrally-located nucleus eosinophilic cytoplasm EM: intracellular secretory canaliculus-invaginations tubulovesicular system mitochondria

22 ---function: i. secret hydrochloric acid (HCl) -synthesis processes of HCl: in intracellular secretory canaliculus H + K + -ATP pump: get H + from cell Cl - channel: get Cl - from blood H + +Cl - →HCl(intracellular secretort canaliculi) -function of HCl: HCl ↓ pepsinogen→pepsin kill the bacterium

23 ii. secret intrinsic factor- glycoprotein + VB12→absorption of VB12

24 c. mucous neck cell less, neck part columnar flattened, basally-located N pale stain in HE stain d. stem cell: undifferentiated cell e. endocrine cell, i.e G cell: secreting gastrin( 胃泌素 ), promote secretion of parietal cell D cell: secreting somatostatin (生长抑素), inhibit the secretion of parietal cell

25 * cardiac gland and pyloric gland : mucous gland, contain G cell, which secretes gastrin, to promote the secreting of parietal cell * Mucous-HCO 3 barrier: 0.25-0.5mm thick mucous HCl PH: 0.9-1.5 H + + HCO 3 - → H 2 CO 3 →H 2 O + CO 2 ↑ bicarbonatase

26 ③ Muscularis mucosa: inner circular and outer longitudinal arranged SM 2) submucosa : CT with BV, LV, N and fat cell 3) muscularis : thicker inner oblique middle circular outer longitudinal 4) advantitia : serosa

27 5. Small intestine ---duodenum ---jejunum ---ileum

28 1) Mucosa ---circular plica ---intestinal villus ---small intestinal gland

29 ① epithelium: ---absorptive cell: microvilli: striated-border -1-1.4um long, 80nm in D, 2000-3000 -enlarge the surface area to 30 times cell coat: -0.1-0.5um -enzymes: trypsinogen (胰蛋白酶原), amylase (淀粉酶) - glucose and protein enzymes-adipose SER

30 ---goblet cell ---endocrine cell: I cell: secreting cholecystokinin (胆囊收 缩素) S cell: secreting secretin (促胰液素)

31 ② lamina propria: CT (LC, macrophage, plasma cell and eosinophil and mast cell)

32 a. villus: is the projection of epithelium and lamina propria epithelium: absorptive cell, goblet cell and endocrine cell lamina propria: CT with central lacteal, fenestrated cap. and SM


34 b. small intestinal gland: is the invagination of epi. into propria absorptive cell goblet cell endocrine cell stem cell Peneth cell

35 Peneth cell : LM: -pyramidal, basally- located, in groups -apical: acidophilic G- Lysozyme (溶菌酶) EM: -protein-secreting cell feature Function: related to immune function

36 goblet cell

37 absorptive cell

38 ③ muscularis mucosa: SM inner circular and outer longitudinal

39 2) submucosa: CT Large BV and LV duodenal gland: mucous gland-secreting epidermal growth factor (表皮生长因子), promote the epithelial cell proliferation of small intestine

40 3) muscularis: SM, inner circular and outer longitudinal 4) adventitia: serosa and less fibrosa

41 6. Large intestine ---absorb water and ions ---structure feature: a. no villus and no circular plica b. well-developed large intestinal gland c. contain more goblet cells d. taeniae coli (结肠带) : longitudinal bunds bag coli (结肠袋)

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