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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, Knoxville M I C R O B I O L O G Y WITH DISEASES BY BODY SYSTEM SECOND EDITION Chapter 15 Innate Immunity

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings An Overview of the Body’s Defenses Resistance to most plant and animal pathogens Resistance due to physiological processes of humans that are incompatible with those of the pathogen (species resistance) – Correct chemical receptors not present on human cells – Temperature and pH may be incompatible with those necessary for the pathogen’s survival Number of pathogens for which humans don’t have innate resistance can cause disease

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense Made up of structures, chemicals, and processes that work to prevent pathogens entering the body Includes the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense The Role of Skin in Innate Immunity – Skin composed of two major layers – Epidermis – Multiple layers of tightly packed cells – Few pathogens can penetrate these layers – Shedding of dead skin cells removes attached microorganisms – Epidermal dendritic cells – Phagocytize pathogens – Dermis – Contains protein fibers called collagen – Give skin strength and pliability to resist abrasions that could introduce microorganisms

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.1]

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense The Role of Skin in Innate Immunity – Skin has chemicals that defend against pathogens – Perspiration secreted by sweat glands – Salt – inhibits growth of pathogens by drawing water from their cells – Antimicrobial peptides – sweat glands secret dermicidins – Lysozyme – destroys cell wall of bacteria – Sebum secreted by sebaceous (oil) glands – Helps keep skin pliable and less likely to break or tear – Lowers the pH of the skin to a level inhibitory to many bacteria

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense The Role of Mucous Membranes and the Lacrimal Apparatus in Innate Immunity – Mucous membranes line all body cavities open to the outside environment – Two distinct layers – Epithelium – Thin, outer covering of the mucous membranes – Unlike surface epidermal cells, epithelial cells are living – Tightly packed to prevent entry of pathogens – Continual shedding of cells carries attached microorganisms away – Deeper connective layer that supports the epithelium

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.2]

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense [INSERT TABLE: 15.1]

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense The Role of Mucous Membranes and the Lacrimal Apparatus in Innate Immunity – Lacrimal apparatus – Produces and drains tears – Blinking spreads tears and washes surface of the eye – Lysozyme in tears destroys bacteria

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.3]

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense The Role of Normal Microbiota in Innate Immunity – Normal microbiota help protect the body by competing with potential pathogens (microbial antagonism) – Various activities of the normal microbiota make it hard for pathogens to compete – Consumption of nutrients makes them unavailable to pathogens – Create an environment unfavorable to other microorganisms by changing pH – Help stimulate the body’s second line of defense – Promote overall health by providing vitamins to host

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense Other First-Line Defenses – Antimicrobial peptides – Present in skin, mucous membranes, neutrophils – Toll-like receptors (TLRs) – Cells produce antimicrobial peptides when microbial chemicals bind to TLRs on host cell – NOD proteins – Intracellular receptors for microbial components such as bacterial cell walls – Other processes and chemicals

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense [INSERT TABLE: 15.2]

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s First Line of Defense [INSERT TABLE: 15.3]

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Operates when pathogens succeed in penetrating the skin or mucous membranes Composed of cells, antimicrobial chemicals, and processes but no physical barriers – Many of these components are contained or originate in the blood

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Defense Components of Blood – Plasma – Plasma is mostly water containing electrolytes, dissolved gases, nutrients, and proteins – When the clotting factors, a group of plasma proteins, are removed from plasma, the remaining fluid is called serum – Includes iron-binding compounds – Other plasma proteins include complement proteins and antibodies

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Defense Components of Blood – Defensive blood cells: leukocytes – The cells and cell fragments in plasma are called formed elements – Three types of formed elements – Erythrocytes – carry oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood – Platelets – involved in blood clotting – Leukocytes – involved in defending the body against invaders – Divided into granulocytes and agranulocytes

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.4]

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Defense Components of Blood – Defensive blood cells: leukocytes – Granulocytes – Neutrophils and eosinophils can phagocytize pathogens – Neutrophils and eosinophils are capable of diapedesis

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.5]

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Defense Components of Blood – Defensive blood cells: leukocytes – Agranulocytes – Two types – Lymphocytes – most involved in adaptive immunity – Monocytes – leave the blood and mature into phagocytic cells called macrophages

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.7]

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Defense Components of Blood – Defensive blood cells: leukocytes – Lab analysis of leukocytes – The differential white blood cell count test can signal signs of disease – Increased eosinophils can indicate allergies or parasitic worm infection – Bacterial diseases often show increase in leukocytes and in neutrophils – Viral infections show increase in lymphocytes

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Phagocytosis – Cells capable of phagocytosis are called phagocytes – Phagocytosis is not completely understood – Can be divided into five stages – Chemotaxis – Adherence – Ingestion – Killing – Elimination

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.8]

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.9]

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Nonphagocytic Killing – Killing by eosinophils – Mainly attack parasitic helminths (worms) by attaching to their surface – Secrete toxins that weaken or kill the helminth – Eosinophilia, or elevated eosinophil levels, is often indicative of a helminth infestation

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Nonphagocytic Killing – Killing by natural killer lymphocytes – Secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells and tumors – Differentiate normal body cells because they have membrane proteins similar to the NK cells

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Nonphagocytic Killing – Killing by neutrophils – Produce chemicals that kill nearby invaders – Generate extracellular fibers called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that bind to and kill bacteria

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Nonspecific Chemical Defenses Against Pathogens – Complement – Set of serum proteins designated numerically according to the order of their discovery – Complement activation results in lysis of the foreign cell – Complement can be activated in three ways – Classical pathway – Alternate pathway – Lectin pathway

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.10]

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.11]

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Nonspecific Chemical Defenses Against Pathogens – Complement – Inactivation of complement – Body’s own cells withstand complement cascade – Membrane-bound proteins on many cells bind with and break down activated complement proteins

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Nonspecific Chemical Defenses Against Pathogens – Interferons – Protein molecules released by host cells to nonspecifically inhibit the spread of viral infections – Cause many symptoms typically associated with viral infections – Two types – Types I (alpha and beta) – Type II (gamma)

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.13]

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT TABLE: 15.4]

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Inflammation – Nonspecific response to tissue damage resulting from various causes – Characterized by redness, heat, swelling, and pain – Two types – Acute – Long-lasting (chronic)

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Inflammation – Acute inflammation – Develops quickly and is short lived – Is typically beneficial – Is important in the second line of defense – Dilation and increased permeability of the blood vessels – Migration of phagocytes – Tissue repair

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.14]

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.15]

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.16]

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.17]

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT TABLE: 15.5]

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense Fever – A body temperature over 37  C – Results when chemicals called pyrogens trigger the hypothalamus to increase the body’s core temperature – Various types of pyrogens – Bacterial toxins – Cytoplasmic contents of bacteria released by lysis – Antibody-antigen complexes – These signal for the production of interleukin-I (IL-1)

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT FIGURE: 15.18]

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Body’s Second Line of Defense [INSERT TABLE: 15.6]


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