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Health Occupations Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Occupations Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Occupations Respiratory System

2 Respiratory System Consists of Responsible for
Lungs Air passages Responsible for Taking in oxygen needed by ALL body cells Removing carbon dioxide & waste produced by cells 4-6 minute supply of oxygen System MUST work continuously

3 Parts of the Respiratory System
Nose A. Air enter via 2 nostrils B. Nasal septum – divides nose into 2 hollow nasal cavities C. Lined with mucous membranes with a rich blood supply D. Air enters cavity 1. Warmed 2. Filtered 3. Moistened

4 E. Mucous is produced by mucous
membranes 1. Moistens air 2. Traps pathogens & dirt F. Cilia – helps to move mucous 1. Pushes trapped particles towards esophagus where it is swallowed G. Olfactory receptors – sense of smell H. Nasolacrimal ducts – drain tears from eyes to nose, provides extra moistures

5 2. Sinuses Cavities in skull surrounding nasal area
Connected to nasal cavity by short ducts Lined with mucous membranes to warm & moisten air Provides resonance for voice

6 3. Pharynx Throat, lies directly behind nasal cavities
Air leaves nose & enters pharynx 3 sections Nasopharynx Upper portion, behind nasal cavities Contains adenoids Contains Eustachion tube (to middle ear)

7 2. Oropharynx a. Middle section, behind mouth b. Receives air from nasopharynx c. Receives food & air from mouth 3. Laryngopharynx a. Bottom section of pharynx b. Contains esophagus, carrying food to stomach c. Contains trachea, carrying air to & from the lungs

8 4. Larynx Voice box, between pharynx & trachea
Nine layers of cartilage Thyroid cartilage – Adam’s apple is largest Vocal cords – 2 folds in larynx Glottis – opening between the vocal cords As air leaves lungs, vocal cords vibrate & produce sound. Tongue & lips act on sound to produce speech Epiglottis – leaflike piece of cartilage that closes the opening of the larynx when swallowing to prevent food & liquid from entering the respiratory tract

9 5. Trachea Windpipe, tube extending from larynx to the center of the chest Carries air between pharynx & bronchi C-shaped cartilage, in a series, open on the dorsal surface, to keep trachea open

10 6. Bronchi Trachea divides into 2 of these near the center of the chest Right bronchus – shorter, wider, more vertical Left bronchus – longer, narrower, less vertical Each enters a lung, carries air from trachea to lung In lung, bronchi divide into smaller & smaller bronchi Lined with cilia & sticky mucous (phlegm) to catch dust & germs Produces 125 mL of mucous/day that is removed by cilia

11 7. Bronchioles Very small bronchi Terminal bronchioles – smallest
End in sacks called alveoli

12 8. Alveoli Look like a bunch of grapes
Adult lung – 500 million alveolis Consists of 1 layers of squamous epithelial tissue & has many capillaries Capillaries allow oxygen & carbon dioxide exchange between blood & lung Inner surface of alveoli are covered with a fatty substances (surfactant) that prevents them from collapsing

13 9. Lungs Organs of respiratory system, contain the bronchi & alveoli
Right lung 1. 3 sections or lobes Left lung 1. 2 lobes, smaller because of heart’s location Pleura Sac or membrane containing lungs 2 layers Visceral pleura – attaches to lung surface Parietal pleura – attaches to chest wall

14 E. Pleura space 1. Located between 2 layers 2. Filled with pleural fluid 3. Lubricates the membranes, prevents friction as lungs expand during breathing F. Located in thoracic cavity along with heart & blood vessels G. Mediastinum – space separating the lungs & contains esophagus, heart, & bronchi

15 Ventilation Process of breathing 2 phases Inspiration or Inhalation
Breathing in air Diaphragm (dome shaped muscles between the thoracic & abdominal cavities) & intercostal muscles contract & enlarge the thoracic cavity to create a vacuum (moves downward) Air rushes through airways to alveoli Gas exchange takes place in alveoli Process is called respiration

16 3. Expiration or exhalation
Diaphragm & intercostal muscles relax Air is forced out of lungs & air passages

17 4. Respiration controlled
Respiratory center in the medulla oblongata of brain Respirations increase due to Increased CO2 in blood Decreased O2 in blood (asthma, COPD, CHF) Mostly involuntary, but person can control rate

18 Stages of respiration External respiration – exchange of O2 & CO2 between LUNGS & BLOODSTREAM Oxygen enters alveoli Oxygen concentration in alveoli is higher than concentration in blood capillaries Oxygen leaves alveoli to enter capillaries CO2 goes the reverse way, leaving the capillaries to enter the alveoli (because CO2 is higher in the capillaries than the alveoli) CO2 expelled during exhalation

19 2. Internal respiration Exchange of CO2 & O2 between BLOOD & TISSUE CELLS O2 carried to tissue cells by blood Concentration of O2 is higher in blood, so it leaves blood for tissues Cells use O2 & nutrients to produce energy, water, & CO2 CO2 concentration is higher in tissues than blood, so CO2 leaves tissues to enter blood

20 3. Cellular respiration Tied in with internal respiration
Cells use O2 & nutrients This process produces energy, water, & CO2 Once CO2 is transported back to bloodstream (internal respiration) it enters the lungs & is expelled by exhalation (external respiration)

21 Assessment Rate Breaths per minute
Varies with age, posture, exercise, temperature, etc Children have faster rate than adults Normal adult 14 – 20 per minute Eupnea – normal respiration Dyspnea – difficult or labored respiration Tachypnea – respirations > 24 per minute Bradypnea – respirations < 10 per minute

22 2. Character Rhythm of respiration Should have regular rhythm
Apnea – absence of respirations Cheyne-Stokes respirations – abnormal pattern of respiration, labored, followed by apnea May be dry, normal, wet, or shallow

23 3. Sounds Breath sounds – heard with stethescope
All should be clear & dry Wheezing – high pitched Rales – like hair rubbing together Rhonchi – wet bubbly noises

24 4. Lung volumes Respiratory capacity – amount of air that can be brought into lungs Measured with a spirometer Depends on age & physical condition Lung volume – measure of respiratory capacity Tidal volume – amount of air normally exchanged with each inspiration & expiration Inspiratory reserve volume – additional amount of air that can be inhaled with a conscious effort

25 Expiratory reserve volume – additional amount of air that can be exhaled with a conscious effort
Vital capacity = TV + IR + ER Residual volume – amount of air always in lungs to maintain shape TLC (Total lung capacity) = TV + IR + ER + RV

26 TOTAL LUNG Capacity VITAL CAPCITY Tidal volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume Expiratory Reserve Volume Residual Volume

27 5. Blood gases Measure amount of gases in blood and blood pH
Accurate assessment Hypoxia – not enough oxygen in blood

28 Abnormal conditions Asthma – respiratory disorder usually caused by sensitivity to allergen, dust, pollen, animal, or food. Can be caused by stress, overexertion, & infection Bronchospasms narrow opening of bronchioles Mucous production increases Edema develops in mucosal lining Symptoms – dyspnea, wheezing, coughing, sputum, chest tightness Treatment – bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory, epinephrine, O2, eliminate allergens

29 2. Bronchitis Inflammation of bronchi & bronchioles
Acute bronchitis – caused by infection Symptoms – productive cough, dyspnea, chest pain, fever Treatment – antibiotics, expectorants, rest, FF Chronic bronchitis – results from frequent attacks of acute bronchitis & long term exposure to smoking or pollutants Chronic inflammation, damaged cilia, enlarged mucous glands Symptoms –excessive mucous with productive cough, wheezing, dyspnea, CP, prolonged air expiration No cure, may use antibiotics, bronchodilators, respiratory therapy

30 3. COPD Chronic lung disease resulting in obstruction of airways
Caused by chronic asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, TB, smoking, allergies, & chronic respiratory infections See symptoms of chronic bronchitis

31 4. Emphysema Noninfectious chronic respiratory condition occurring when walls of alveoli deteriorate & lose elasticity CO2 remains trapped in alveoli & there is poor gas exchange Causes – heavy smoking, exposure to pollutants Symptoms – dyspnea, feeling of suffocation, pain, barrel chest, chronic cough, cyanosis, rapid respirations with prolonged expiration, eventual respiratory failure & death No cure, treat with bronchodilators, prompt tx of respiratory infections, O2, resp tx, avoid smoking

32 5. Epistaxis Nosebleeds Occur when capillaries in nose become congested & bleed Causes – nose injury, HTN, chronic infection, anticoagulants, blood diseases (hemophilia, leukemia) Treatment – pinch nostrils towards septum, tilt head slightly forward, cold compresses. Sometimes necessary to insert nasal packs or cauterize

33 6. Influenza Flu Highly contagious, viral infection of upper respiratory system Sudden onset, chills, fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle pain, fatigue Treatment – bedrest, fluids, analgesics, Tylenol Immunizations recommended for elderly, people with chronic disease, pregnant, health care workers, children

34 7. Laryngitis Inflammation of larynx & vocal cords
Frequently occurs with other respiratory infections Symptoms – hoarseness, loss of voice, sore throat, dysphagia Treatment – rest, limited voice use, fluids, meds if infection

35 8. Lung cancer Leading cause of cancer deaths
Preventable disease – main cause is tobacco exposure 3 types of lung CA – Squamous cell, small cell, adenocarcinoma Early stages – no symptoms Later stages – chronic cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, fatigue, weight loss, CP Prognosis poor because of late dx Treatment – surgical removal of cancerous part of lung, radiation, chemo

36 9. Pleurisy Inflammation of pleura
Usually in conjunction with other infections Symptoms – sharp stabbing pain when breathing, crepitus, dyspnea, fever Treatment – rest, meds to relieve pain & inflammation, serious cases - thoracentesis

37 10. Pneumonia Inflammation or infection of lungs with exudates in alveoli (fluid) Usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemicals Symptoms – chills, fever, CP, productive cough, dyspnea, fatigue Treatment – bedrest, fluids, antibiotics, resp tx, pain meds

38 11. Rhinitis Inflammation of nasal mucous membrane
Symptoms – runny nose, soreness, congestion Causes – infections, allergens Treatment – fluids, meds to relieve congestion

39 12. Sinusitis Inflammation of mucous membranes in sinuses
May involve 1 or more sinuses Usually caused by virus or bacteria Symptoms – HA or pressure, thick nasal discharge, congestion, loss of voice resonance Treatment – analgesics, antibiotics, decongestants, moist inhalations, sometimes surgery if sinusitis is chronic

40 13. Tuberculosis Infectious lung disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis WBC surround invading TB organisms & wall them off in nodules called tubercules in lungs TB organisms can remain dormant in tubercules but can become active TB later if resistance is lowered Symptoms of active TB – fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, hemoptysis, CP Treatment – drugs for 1or more years, good nutrition, rest New strain of TB is drug resistant

41 14. Upper respiratory infection
URI, common cold Inflammation of mucous membranes lining upper respiratory tract Caused by viruses, very contagious Symptoms – runny nose, fever, watery eyes, congestion, sore throat, hacking cough No cure, symptoms last about 1 week Treatment – analgesics, Tylenol, rest, FF, antihistamines to relieve symptoms

42 15. Cystic fibrosis Genetic disease of exocrine glands in which the mucous in respiratory system becomes thick Excessive salt also forms on skin Also have digestive difficulties Need to give intensive pulmonary care Outlook is better now


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