Presentation on theme: "PA Keystone Biology MT & FINAL EXAM Review Pkt Mid-Term on: _________ Final Exam on: __________."— Presentation transcript:
PA Keystone Biology MT & FINAL EXAM Review Pkt Mid-Term on: _________ Final Exam on: __________
Source: PA Dept. of Education (PDE) “Keystone Exams: Biology Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content with Sample Questions and Glossary” (April 2011) www.education.state.pa.us/
USING THIS REVIEW PKT Read each question on the slide carefully Assign a number 1, 2 or 3 next to the question using the following criteria: 1...…I have no clue! (rats!!?) 2 …..sounds sort of familiar, but I need to review the info 3 ……I (already) know this one!!! Next, focus on the #2 questions and study the answers. Then, and only then, go after the #1 quest. --never start w/ the #1’s (chances are after doing all the #2’s, these # 1’s will be much easier to find the answers)
EXAM Preparation Tips Begin to review this packet material at least two weeks in advance to organize the info--preferably with a partner A good nights sleep & adequate breakfast are both very important for recalling stored information during any test (relying on an “all-nighter” is a foolhardy approach) *** DO NOT PLAN TO CRAM FOR EXAM ***
Exam Taking Tips As you read through the Exam, answer only those questions that you know the correct response and make note of those you are not sure of—you will return back to these later. (If you studied well, you will be amazed how effective this strategy is for narrowing down the response options). Read through the entire question carefully and look over all the available response options. Eliminate those you know to be wrong. Do not allow yourself to get stuck on a question— ……..move on! Go back and answer the questions you had skipped over (at this point, eliminate options & guess if you have to) and erase any stray pencil marks.
MID-TERM BIO.A.1 Basic Biological Principals BIO.A.2 The Chemical Basis of Life BIO.B.4 Ecology BIO.A.3 Bioenergenics
Anchor BIO.A.1.1 Explain the characteristics common to all organisms BIO.A.1.1.1 Describe the characteristics of life shared by all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. 1
Internal Organization—Each part of an organisms is interrelated to support life Metabolism— energy transfers Involving the breaking down & rebuilding of molecules (carbs, proteins, lipids, DNA) Homeostasis-- Use of energy to maintain a “steady state” internal environment. --(in spite of changes in external environ.) Reproduction—Transmit genetic code (DNA) from parent(s) to offspring either asexually or sexually Growth-- is to get larger by increasing body mass and/or size --produce more and/or larger cell(s) Development-- is to undergo change to reach the adult (sexually mature) form of your species Stimulus & Response--Response is due to changes in external environment such as temperature, pressure, sunlight, sound, fast moving trucks, girls, etc
BIO.A.1.2.1 Compare cellular structures and their functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Anchor BIO.A.1.2 Describe relationships between structure & function at biological levels of organization. 2
All cell types have the following structures: 1) Cell Membrane –regulates passage of materials into/out of the cell 2) DNA & RNA —genetic heredity & protein synthesis 3) Cytoplasm —semi-fluid substance that bathes internal structures and allows for diffusion Eukaryote Cell Structures –you will need to refer to your Prentice Hall Biology textbook page 175 for diagrams or use Internet PHSchool.com Active Art code: cbp-3072 Prokaryote Cell Structures –refer to textbook page 472 for diagram
BIO.A.1.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure & function at various levels of biological organization (i.e., organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and multi-cellular organisms) Anchor BIO.A.1.2 Describe relationships between structure & function at biological levels of organization. 3
Organelles specialized eukaryotic cell structures that have specific jobs (i.e. mitochondria produce ATP, chloroplast capture sunlight and make glucose). Cells have specific functions, usually based on its shape, such as absorption- -(small intestine), protection--(skin), movement --(muscle). Tissues are made up of similar type cells that work together to do a specific function and are grouped into four basic categories: Epithelial--(protection, digestive tract, blood vessels), Connective--(bone, cartilage, blood), Muscle--(skeletal, cardiac & smooth) and Nervous--(motor & sensory neurons. Organs made up of several organs to do a specific job (i.e. Digestive Sys uses esophagus, stomach, intestines, & rectum), Organ Systems made of several with other systems organs that usually work together --(Digestive Sys breaks down food into nutrient for uptake into the Circulatory Sys. Respiratory Sys provide O2 to Circulatory Sys so that cells can make ATP from Glucose inside their mitochondria)
Anchor BIO.A.2.1 Describe how the unique properties of water support life on Earth. BIO.A.2.1.1 Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth (e.g., freezing point, high specific heat, cohesion). 4
Water will absorb or release heat more slowly than most other compounds. It takes considerable input of heat to change H 2 0 (aq) into H 2 0 (g)—when the water evaporates it takes the heat w/ it. –(cooling effect) Cohesion: polar water molecules tend to be attracted to each other causing surface tension – (acts like a skin). Water Adhesion: water is attracted to other polar molecules (sticks to & makes things wet). Together, these properties to create Capillary Action which is used by plants to move H 2 O from roots leaves for photosynth. At 100 o C, H20 molecules are moving about rapidly w/ enough energy to break free from the surface tension as a gas. At 4 o C, H20 molecules are most densely packed together --(causes lake turnover). At 0 o C, H 2 0 molecules are not moving fast & allow the hydrogen bonds to hold them at fixed (far apart) distance- which is why ice floats as a solid --(very unusual)
Anchor BIO.A.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure & function at various levels of biochemical organization (i.e. atoms, molecules, and macromolecules). BIO.A.2.2.1 Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules 5
Anchor BIO.A.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure & function at various levels of biochemical organization (i.e. atoms, molecules, and macromolecules). BIO.A.2.2.2 Describe how biological macromolecules (polymers) form from monomers. 6
Slide 5 The Carbon Atom has FOUR valence (outer) electrons. Therefore, to fill-up its outermost energy level with eight electrons, it will form FOUR Covalent Bonds (equal sharing of electrons) with other atoms including itself. (i.e. CH 4, CO 2, C 6 H 12 O 6 ). This chemical behavior makes carbon one of the most versatile atoms and is used as the “backbone chain” for all the macromolecules (carbs, lipids, proteins & nucleic acids) Slide 6 Macromolecules such as the polysaccharide STARCH are called polymers (poly = many) because the are formed by bonding together many glucose molecules which are referred to as the monomers (mono = one). Other examples include a PROTEIN polypeptide made of many amino acid monomers and DNA made of many nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine & cytosine)
Anchor BIO.A.2.2 Describe and interpret relationships between structure & function at various levels of biochemical organization (i.e. atoms, molecules, and macromolecules). BIO.A.2.2.3 Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in organisms (a.k.a. Macromolecules of life) 7
Carbohydrates are used for immediate --(glucose) and short-term energy/food storage --(starch & glycogen). They also play a structural support role for plants --(cellulose for cell walls), and some animals -- (chitin for exoskeleton). Lipids are all water insoluble macros that can be used for long-term energy storage & insulation --(triglycerides), forming cell membranes (phospholipids), and light capturing pigments --(chloroplasts) Proteins are the most versatile with functions such as structural support --(cell cytoskeleton), immune system --(antibodies), cellular transport --(cell membrane proteins to regulate passage of materials, and hemoglobin to transport O 2 & CO 2 ). Enzymes are a special group that catalyze (speed up) all biochemical rxns Nucleic Acids -DNA holds the genetic code (genes) for making proteins and is used to pass along heredity of offspring. RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA) helps the DNA gene in expressing the making of proteins …..(Protein Synthesis = DNA mRNA Protein)
Anchor BIO.A.2.3 Explain how enzymes regulate biochemical reactions within a cell. BIO.A.2.3.1 Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction. 8
Activation Energy is the minimum energy input needed for a chemical reaction to occur. Enzymes help lower this amount of energy input by “attaching to” the substrate molecule and then stressing the chem bonds holding the molecules together (this is a Hydrolysis Rxn—see below) ….or.. an enzyme will help align the substrate molecules so they can more easily form a bond between them (this is a Dehydration Synthesis Rxn) –see slide 8). Each type of protein enzyme only work on a specific substrate and they are recycled—which mean they are used over & over again! ENZYME
Anchor BIO.A.2.3 Explain how enzymes regulate biochemical reactions within a cell. BIO.A.2.3.2 Explain how factors such as pH, temp., and concentration levels can affect enzyme function 9
Three issues are involving in how quickly & efficiently enzymes can work on its substrate molecule(s) in a biochemical rxn: 1). How fast the molecules are moving about in the cell solution—this involves diffusion where the higher temperature, the faster the (enzyme & substrate) molecules are moving and will make contact with each other. 2). How the temperature & pH affect the 3-D shape of the enzyme itself. Since it is a protein made up of bonded amino acids, these environmental factors can affect these bonds which can affect it’s shape. The enzyme has a “notch” called the Active Site, which is where the substrate(s) fit into. Any change to this “notch” will affect how well (if at all), the enzyme works. 3). The number of enzymes and/or substrates in the solution (i.e. inside the cell) is referred to as the concentration. The more concentrated the enzymes/substrates in a solution, the faster the contacts occur between them (due to diffusion) and the faster the rxns will occur.
State the Problem Form a Hypothesis Set Up a Controlled Experiment Record & Analyze Data Results and Draw Conclusions Publish Results THEORY PRINCIPLE Anchor BIO.B.3.3 Apply scientific thinking, processes, tools, & technologies in the study of the theory of evolution BIO.B.3.3.1 Distinguish between the scientific terms: hypothesis, inference, law, theory, principle, fact, and observation 10
Observation: use of one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell and rarely in a scientific activity taste) to gather information. Hypothesis: a possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question. (must be testable by experiment) Fact: tested observation of an outcome that gives the same results Inference: a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience. Theory: a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations (supported by many, many published experiments) Law: is a universally accepted fact which explains an action. Laws do not change where as theories may be modified as new evidence is gathered or in a different situation. Principle: is an explanation of observations with in a specific group that is universally accepted by the scientific community.
Go to Section: Anchor BIO.B.4.1 Describe ecological levels of organization in the biosphere species BIO.B.4.1.1 Describe the levels of ecological organization (i.e., organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, and biosphere). 11
Individual Organism: The smallest unit studied by an ecologist. Population: All of the individuals of the same species living in an area. Species: organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. Community: All the different populations living in an area. A bison herd is a population of bison. The hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog and grass populations form the prairie community.
Ecosystem: All the populations and the nonliving environment in a particular place. The biotic hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog and grass community and the abiotic stream, rocks and air make the prairie ecosystem. Biome: A biome is a group of ecosystems with the same climate and similar dominant communities.
Biosphere: The portion of the Earth where life exists.
Go to Section: Anchor BIO.B.4.1 Describe ecological levels of organization in the biosphere BIO.B.4.1.2 Describe characteristic biotic & abiotic components of aquatic & terrestrial ecosystems. 12
Terrestrial ecosystems are ones found on land. Aquatic ecosystems are ones found in the water. Biotic components of an ecosystem are the living things (plants, animals, fungi, protists and bacteria) found in the ecosystem. Abiotic components of an ecosystem are the nonliving (air, water, temperature, sunlight, wind, soil and rocks) components of an ecosystem.
Anchor BIO.B.4.2 Describe interactions and relationships in an ecosystem BIO.B.4.2.1 Describe how energy flows through an ecosystem (e.g., food chains, food webs, energy pyramids). 10% Rule 13
A food web shows the complex feeding relationships between the members of a community. All food webs begin with the producer organisms (trophic level 1) extending to the herbivores (trophic level 2) which eat them. The carnivores (trophic level 3 and higher) consumer the animals below them. Between each trophic level only 10% of the energy is transferred to succeeding levels and 90% of the energy is lost as heat to the environment. mosquito
Anchor BIO.B.4.2 Describe interactions and relationships in an ecosystem BIO.B.4.2.2 Describe biotic interactions in an ecosystem (e.g., competition, predation, symbiosis). 14
The competitive exclusion principle states that two species can not occupy the same niche in the same area at the same time. Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time. Competition for mates within a species Competition for food between different species.
These warblers feed in a different part of a tree, avoiding the competitive exclusion principle.
Predation An organism (the predator) kills and eats another organism (the prey).
Two different species living in very close association is a Symbiotic Relationship Mutualism--both species benefit ( i.e. ants & aphids, sharks & bacterial inside legumes) Commensalism – one species benefits & the other is not affected at al l (i.e. clown fish & anomea, sharks & remora fish ?) Parasitism--one species benefits while the other is harmed (i.e. dog & flea, tapeworm & human)