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Cooperative learning in the classroom Dr Wendy Jolliffe University of Hull.

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1 Cooperative learning in the classroom Dr Wendy Jolliffe University of Hull

2 We Learn % Read 20% Hear 30% See 50% See & Hear 80% Experi- ence 95% Teach William Glasser, % Discuss

3 What is genuine cooperative learning? Johnson and Johnson (2000, 2005) define them as the following: PPositive interdependence IIndividual accountability GGroup and individual reflection SSmall group skills FFace-to-face interaction

4 Benefits of CL Three main categories of advantages (Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Slavin, 1995, 1996; Sharan, 1990; Cohen and Lotan 1995; Kyndt et al, 2013): 1. Higher academic achievement 2. Enhanced inter-personal relationships 3.Greater psychological health and social competence 4.Promotes achievement gains for all 5.Status and learning of low-status pupils can be enhanced Pupils in Year 7 learning mathematics:

5 So why is it not more commonly used? We are not born cooperative – we have to learn the skills of cooperating

6 Teaching the skills ‘ The teacher must establish the will and the skill to co-operate.’ (Kagan, 1994) 1.Establish the need for the skill 2.Defining the skill 3.Guided Practice 4.Provide time for group reflection of progress 5.Generalised application of the skill

7 Teachers need support too! Cooperative learning in the classroom requires cooperative learning in the staffroom!

8 Tom’s story Tom is in his second year of high school. He has an intellectual disability, and although he could participate in most activities, he had difficulties organising his routines, such as locating the books he needed and understanding instructions. It was not long before his teachers realised that unless they acted, he would always be late for lessons and unfortunately, the target of peer ridicule and jokes. Tom was sociable and well liked by his peers because of his easy-going manner, so his teachers arranged for him to be included in various cooperative learning groups that they established in their classes. (Gillies, 2007, p. 3)

9 So what happened to Tom?

10 This enabled Tom to work in small supportive groups in which he could take risks with his learning. His peers encouraged his participation and ensured, like others in his groups, that he undertook specific roles. These included helping organise resources, present his ideas on a topic through different media, and work with his peers to complete the activity they were working on. This enhanced Tom’s self-confidence and increased his status among his peers as they realised he was able to make worthwhile contributions to his group.

11 Five Key Steps to Implementing Cooperative Learning 1. Establish class cohesion 2.Carry out team building activities 3.Teach conflict resolution skills 4.Teaching the skills of working cooperatively 5.Incorporate cooperative learning into lessons beginning with partner work

12 Supporting initial teacher training they need those skills even more to appreciate and to build the tolerance of others… that everybody has a role to play and that’s the best way I think through CL that you can do it. At the end of the day there aren’t many jobs are there were you don’t have to work cooperatively with others so why do we educate everybody to be individual?

13 In conclusion Research evidence demonstrates the impact of working cooperatively Importance of explicitly teaching the skills to cooperate Implement using a phased approach Co-operative learning in the classroom requires cooperative learning in the staffroom! Wendy Jolliffe


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