River fieldwork To measure the depth of the channel to draw a cross-section: 1.Place a ranging pole on either side of the channel 2. Measure the width of the channel using a tape measure 3. Measure the depth of the channel every 50cm using a meter rule To measure the stream velocity: 1.Measure out 10m using the tape measure and mark using ranging poles 2.Use something that floats and time how long it takes to travel 10m using a stopwatch 3.Repeat the experiment to get a more reliable set of results Note: You could improve this experiment by using a flowmeter and by repeating the experiment on different parts of the rivers course
Beach fieldwork To measure a slope or beach profile: 1.Measure the width of the beach using the tape measure 2. Place a ranging pole every 5m 3. Measure the angle between each ranging pole using the Clinometer being careful to keep the ranging poles straight 4. Another member of the group should record the results To measure long shore drift: 1.Place ranging poles 20m apart parallel to the sea 2. Throw an orange into the waves from the central point 3. Time with a stopwatch how long it takes for the orange to travel the 10m. Record both speed and direction of long shore drift. 4. Repeat the experiment Note: This experiment can be improved by repeating it on another part of the beach for comparison or in different sea conditions.
Infiltration rates 1.Place the tube on the ground. Hold it down so that no water escapes from the bottom 2.Measure out 100cl of water with a measuring cylinder and pour the water into the tube 3.Time with the stopwatch how long it takes for the water to infiltrate into the soil. The quicker it takes, the higher the infiltration rate. 4.Repeat the experiment Note: Infiltration rates will be higher after rain because the ground will be saturated. Erosion of the ground (on footpaths) will slow down infiltration rates.
Writing questions 1.Study the hypotheses to see what data you need to collect with your questions 2.Closed questions are usually the most appropriate Example: Hypothesis – “People will travel further to visit the CBD than a local shop” Hypothesis – “People will spend more money in the CBD than a local shop” Questions: How far have you travelled to shop today? a.Less than 1km b.Between 1 and 5km c.More than 10 km How much have you spent today? a.Less than 10 pounds b.Between 10 and 40 pounds c.More than 40 pounds
Surveys This is when information is collected visually. You give a score to a location by judging it against criteria. Example: 0123 Very few parks, few litter bins, untidy Many parks, well cared for Houses are small and cramped together Large houses, detached Lots of noise, traffic congestions Quiet environment, clean air You may be asked about planning this experiment, that would deciding how you were going to judge what is very noise, quite noisy etc. Splitting up the study area between groups, staying in pairs for safety etc. HOME
Method questions These are questions about how you do an experiment Name the fieldwork equipment and how you would use it in this experiment
Results questions You might be asked to describe a set of results Describe the trend or pattern Back up your description with data Example: Temperatures rose during the study period, from 12 degrees C on Monday to 14 degrees C on Friday.
Conclusions questions You might be asked to write a conclusion to an experiment. Look at the hypothesis and the data and then write your conclusion using the hypothesis as a starting point. Back it up with data if the question asks for it. Example: The hypothesis is correct, temperatures were higher when there were lower amounts of rainfall. On Monday there was 5mm of rain and temperature was 12 degrees C but on Wednesday there was no rain and temperature was 16 degrees C.
Evaluation questions You might be asked to suggest improvements to an experiment. Here are some things you can say that will always be relevant: They should repeat the experiment to get a more accurate result They should repeat the experiment on different days/seasons/conditions to be able to make a comparison HOME