Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Literary Focus Essays"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 4 Literary Focus Essays Collection 7: Themes of Romantic PoetryCollection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry
2Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Influences on Romantic PoetrySpread of democratic ideals through the American and French Revolutions and disillusionment after failure of French RevolutionReactions against harsh living and working conditions created for urban poor by the Industrial Revolution and laissez-faire economicsFascination with nature and country life, which seemed a blissful retreat compared to city slums
3Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry A New Focus in PoetryInvited readers to feel power and passionTried to capture personal experienceRomantic PeriodAugustan EraOrder had just been restoredSociety needed social changePoets celebrated order, hierarchy, and enlightened rulePoets wrote about personal feelings, supported individual rights, and used everyday language
4Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry A New Focus in PoetryRomantic comes from the world romance.A medieval romance is a tale of high adventure that idealizes knightly virtues and has supernatural elements.Romantic writers used elements of romance to go beyond neoclassical formality and explore psychological and mysterious depths of human experience.
5Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry A New Focus in PoetryRomantic poetsWere fascinated with youth and innocence, particularly a child’s fresh view of the worldSaw history as a cycle in which tradition and authority must be constantly questioned to improve living conditionsPercy Bysshe ShelleyBelieved people had to accept change to survive
6Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Imagination: The Inspired GuideMany say the Romantic movement began in 1798 when Wordsworth and Coleridge published Lyrical Ballads.The Romantics are often considered nature poets.However, they are really “mind poets” who sought to understand the bond between humans and the world of the senses.
7Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Imagination: The Inspired GuideThe Romantics saw imagination as the link between mind and nature.To them, imaginative experi- ences were especially moving, perhaps superior to human reasoning.The mysterious forces of Nature inspired them.All six of the major Romantic poets had their own ideas about imagination, but all believed that it could be stimulated by nature and the mind.
8Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Nature: The Wise TeacherIf imagination is the Romantic poet’s guide to truth, Nature is the wise teacher that can deliver the lesson.Romantic poets considered themselves especially sensitive.They wanted to help people see the world in all its beauty, sadness, and tenderness.
9Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Nature: The Wise TeacherFor the Romantic poets, nature was a balm to soothe the relentless hounding of an industrialized world.The poets had a strong sense of nature’s transformative properties.Poets tried to translate scenes of natural beauty into words so that readers might know the power of natural forces to shape thought and feeling.
10Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Nature: The Wise TeacherThe Romantics’ interest in natural images and themes was reflected in Gothic literature.Novels such as Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein appealed to the imagination throughEerie settingsSupernatural eventsQuestions about humans’ ability to manipulate nature
11Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Experience: The Worthy SubjectRomantic poets favored idealized rural settings.However, some celebrated the people who lived in crowded cities.They promoted rights toHealthful living conditionsRelief from political or economic oppressionSelf-expression
12Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Experience: The Worthy SubjectSome Romantics dreamed that poetry could offer an example of model behavior to improve horrific social conditions:Undemocratic governmentsDangerous factoriesChild workers in coal mineChild laborLaissez-faire economic policies that left businesses unregulated
13Collection 7: Themes of Romantic Poetry Ask Yourself1. Where did Romantic poets look for inspiration? Why?2. Why do you think Romantic poets wrote about nature during a time of change?[End of Section]
14Collection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry Characteristics of Romantic PoetryExpresses the emotions and concerns of an individual as well as of societyVaries the structure of traditional forms to suit a poem’s purposeFocuses on a poet’s personal connection to nature
15Collection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry Function over FormThe Romantics took poetry in a new direction.Romantic Poets18th Century PoetsPoetry was a strictly defined literary genre.Poetry was a playground of feelings.Poets experimented with forms and expressed feelings in natural language.Poets used formal language and structured traditional forms such as odes and sonnets.Function was more important than form.Form was more important than function.
16Collection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry Function over Form“Tintern Abbey” a FirstIn “Tintern Abbey,” Wordsworth for the first time used blank verse that sounds like the flowing rhythms of natural speech.Like other Romantics, he experimented with simpler rhythms and language.Tintern Abbeyby J. M. W. Turner
17Collection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry Romantic FormsThe Romantics favored these poetic forms:1ode2sonnet3Spenserian stanza
18Collection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry 1The OdeAn ode is a long complex poem (usually a meditation on a serious topic).“Ode to the West Wind”Percy Bysshe ShelleyOdeLooks both inward and outward—exalting the powerful, but invisible, wind and reflecting on unseen forces in the poet’s own mindEach stanza is a variation on the sonnet form.
19Collection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry 2The SonnetWordsworth made the sonnet popular again.A sonnet is a fourteen-line lyric poem in iambic pentameter.Byron used the Spenserian stanza.3The Spenserian stanzaInvented by the Renaissance poet Edmund Spenser, this form has nine lines with a complex rhyme and rhythm pattern.
20Collection 8: Forms of Romantic Poetry Ask Yourself1. What was more important to Romantic poets, form or function? Why?2. What topics did Romantic poets pursue? Why?[End of Section]