Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 The Resurrection of Christ Copyright Norman Geisler 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Slide 1 The Resurrection of Christ Copyright Norman Geisler 2010
Slide 2 Importance of the Resurrection IT IS AT THE HEART OF THE GOSPEL (1 COR. 15:1-3) IT IS A CONDITION OF SALVATION (ROM. 10:9-10) THERE IS NO HOPE WITHOUT IT (1 COR. 15:12-19)
Slide 3 Importance of the Resurrection 1 Corinthians 15:14-19 If Christ has not been raised,  our preaching is useless and  so is your faith. More than that,  we are then found to be false witnesses about God, for we have testified about God that he raised Christ from the dead. And if Christ has not been raised,  your faith is futile;  you are still in your sins. Then  those also who have fallen asleep in Christ are lost. If only for this life we have hope in Christ,  we are to be pitied more than all men.
Slide 4 Test for an Orthodox View Do you believe in… The empty tomb? The resurrection? In a physical resurrection? In the bodily appearances of the resurrected Jesus?
Slide 5 Congratulations! You just hired a Jehovah’s Witness!
Slide 6 Jehovah’s Witnesses’ View The fleshly body is…not the body of his glorification, nor the body in which he was resurrected. So the King Christ Jesus was put to death in the flesh and was resurrected an invisible spirit creature. Therefore, the bodies…after his resurrection were not the body in which he was nailed to the tree. They were merely materialized for the occasion, resembling on one or two occasions the body in which he died. He (Christ) instantly created and assumed such a body of flesh and such clothing as he saw fit for the purpose intended.
Slide 7 Test for an Orthodox View Necessary Questions: Do you believe Jesus rose... in the numerically same body? in an essentially physical body? in a continuously physical body?
Slide 8 THREE VIEWS OF THE RESURRECTION
Slide 9 Three Views of the Resurrection Orthodox View Liberal View Neo-Orthodox View
Slide 10 The Empty Tomb: Three Views ORTHODOXLIBERAL NEO- ORTHODOX Explanation for the absence of Jesus’ body God raised it Someone took it God destroyed it (transformed) ResuscitationRelocationAnnihilation ResurrectionRemovalDestruction Explanation for the post- Resurrection appearances of Jesus PhysicalPsychological Apocalyptical (vision or theophany) On earthIn mindIn heaven Historical (out-there) Personal (in-here) Super-historical (up-there)
Slide 11 Rudolf Bultmann’s View But what of the resurrection? Is it not a mythical event pure and simple? Obviously it is not an event of past history with a self-evident meaning? (p. 38) Both the legend of the empty tomb and the appearances insist on the physical reality of the risen body of the Lord. But these are most certainly later embellish- ments. (p. 39) An historical fact which involves a resurrection from the dead is utterly inconceivable! (p. 39) The real Easter faith…is nothing else than the rise of faith in the risen Lord, since it was this faith which led to the apostolic preaching, (p. 42) (Bultmann, New Testament and Mythology)
Slide 12 Emil Brunner’s View Emphasis upon the Empty Tomb led to the medieval conception of the "resurrection of the body," which has also been inserted into the Apostles' Creed. Paul's teaching about a “spiritual body" is in opposition to such a conception. Resurrection of the body, yes: resurrection of the flesh, no! The "Resurrection of the body" does not mean the identity of the resurrection body with the material body of flesh; but [it] means the continuity of the individual personality on this side, and on that, of death. (Brunner, The Christian Doctrine of Creation and Redemption: Dogmatics: (1952) 11:372))
Slide 13 Glenn Hinson’s View Paul was convinced that the Christ who appeared to him belonged to another order of existence than the Christ the disciples had known in the flesh. The risen Christ had not a physical but a spiritual body. Flesh and blood, Paul contended, cannot inherit the kingdom of God. The perishable physical nature has to give way to the imperishable spiritual nature. The appearances were more in the nature of theo- phanies, like the Old Testament theophanies of Yahweh. This would explain why, on the Emmaus road, for example, the disciples failed to recognize Jesus until he did something familiar to them. (Hinson, Jesus Christ, )
Slide 14 Wolfhart Pannenberg’s View Because the life of the resurrected Lord involves the reality of the new creation, the resurrected Lord is in fact not perceptible as one object among others in this world; therefore, he could only be experienced and designated by an extraordinary mode of experience, the vision, and only in metaphorical language. The Easter appearances may have involved an extra- ordinary vision, not an event that was visible to everyone. This to especially clear with regard to the Damascus event Paul must have seen a spiritual body, a soma pneumatikon on the road to Damascus, not a person with an earthly body.
Slide 15 George Ladd’s View It was not a revivification of a dead corpse, returning to physical life.... Obviously, Jesus had not revived. Obviously, the body had not been stolen. It had simply disappeared, (p. 94) At his resurrection he entered into the invisible world of God. His appearances to his disciples did not mean the passing of one body through other solid substances; it means that Jesus, who was with them but invisible, made himself visible to their physical senses. (p. 127) The appearances, then, were condescension of the risen, exalted Lord by which he convinced his disciples that he was no longer dead. (p. 101) (Ladd, I Believe in the Resurrection of Jesus)
Slide 16 Murray Harris’ View In his resurrected body...his essential state was one of invisibility and therefore immateriality.... (Easter in Durham, 17). Another characteristic of Jesus' resurrection body was the ability to materialize and therefore to be localized at will. (Raised Immortal (RI), 54). The Ascension vividly dramatized Christ's earlier exaltation to God's right hand…a parable acted out for the benefit of the disciples as a visual and historical confirmation of a spiritual reality (RI, 92). It is not ‘historical’ in the sense of being an incident that was observed by witnesses or even an incident that could have been observed by mortal gaze (Raised Immortal, 58).
Slide 18 EVIDENCE FOR THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF CHRIST’S RESURRECTION
Slide 19 Eyewitnesses of the Resurrection The Order of the Twelve Appearances of Christ PersonsSawHeardTouchedOther 1. Mary (Jn. 20:10-18) XXXEmpty tomb 2. Mary & Woman (Mt. 28:1-10) XXXEmpty tomb 3. Peter (1 Cor. 15:5) & John (Jn, 20:1-10) XXEmpty tomb, Grave clothes 4. Two Disciples (Lk. 24:13-35) XXAte with him 5. Ten Apostles (Lk, 24:36-49; Jn. 20:19-23) XXX*Saw wounds, Ate food 6. Eleven Apostles (Jn. 20:24-31) XXX*Saw wounds *0ffered himself to be touched
Slide 20 Eyewitnesses of the Resurrection The Order of the Twelve Appearances of Christ PersonsSawHeardTouchedOther 7. Seven Apostles (Jn. 21) XXAte food 8. All Apostles (Mt. 28:16-20; Mk 16:14-18) XX Brethren (1Cor, 15:6) XX* 10. James (1Cor. 15:7) XX* 11. All Apostles (Acts 1:4-8) XXAte with Him 12. Paul (Acts 9:1-9; 1Cor. 15:8) XX *lmplied
Slide 21 The Nature of the Resurrection The Empty Tomb -The same physical body placed in the tomb permanently vacated it alive three days later (Mt. 28:6). Jesus Said His Resurrection Body had "Flesh and Bones'‘ - He was not a spirit but had real "flesh and bones" (Lk. 24:39). He was raised in "the flesh" (Acts 2:31). Jesus' Resurrection Body Had Physical Wounds -Jesus revealed His crucifixion scars to the disciples (Lk. 24:39) and challenged Thomas to touch him (Jn. 20:27).
Slide 22 The Nature of the Resurrection Jesus Ate Physical Food Four Times after the Resurrection -He offered it as proof He had a real physical body (Lk. 24:30; 24:42-43; Jn. 21:12-13; Acts 1:4). Jesus' Resurrection Body was Touched and handled -Jesus was touched by Mary (Jn. 20:17), and by the women (Mt. 28:9); He challenged the disciples (Lk. 24:39) and Thomas to feel His wounds (Jn. 20:27). The Resurrection Body of Christ could be Seen and Heard -The body of Christ was seen after His resurrection with the naked eye (Mt. 28:17) and heard with natural ears (Jn. 20:15-16).
Slide 23 The Nature of the Resurrection Word "Body" (soma) Always Means Physical Body in N.T. -There are no exceptions to this use of the "body" of an individual in the N. T. Only Bodies Rise not Souls -The physical body of Christ died (not his soul). Thus, it was this material body that rose again from the dead (I Cor. 15:3-4). The Body "Sown" is the Same Body that is Raised -The same body "sown" in death is the one raised in life (I Cor. 15:35-44).
Slide 24 The Nature of the Resurrection Resurrection is From Among (ek) the Dead -This phrase means He was raised from the graveyard (Luke 24:46) where physical corpses are buried (cf. Acts 13:29-30). We Will Recognize Our Loved Ones in Heaven - Paul comforts the believers with this anticipation (I Thess. 4:13-18). The Resurrection Body is Physically Recognizable -Jesus was recognized in His resurrection body like any other physical body (Mt. 28:7, 17; Mk. 16:7; Lk. 24:24). Called “Flesh” four Times (Lk. 24:39; Acts 2:31; 1Jn. 4:2; 2Jn. 7).
Slide 25 Therefore… Jesus’ resurrection body was the numerically same body because… CRUCIFIXION SCARS PROVE IT WAS THE SAME BODY (Lk. 24:30). EMPTY TOMB SHOWS IT WAS THE SAME BODY (Mt.28:6). JESUS SAID IT WAS THE SAME BODY (Jn. 2:21-22). THE FACT THAT IT DID NOT CORRUPT INDICATES IT WAS THE SAME BODY (Acts 2:31).
Slide 26 Therefore… Jesus’ resurrection body was the numerically same body because… STRESS ON BURIAL REVEALS IT IS THE SAME BODY (1 Cor. 15:3,4; Rom. 6:3-5; Col. 2:12). SEED ANALOGY SHOWS IT IS THE SAME BODY (1 Cor.15:35-44). FACT THAT IT IS "PUT ON" OVER BUT DOESN'T REPLACE THE PRE-RESURRECTION BODY (1 Cor. 15:53).
Slide 27 Note… 1) CHANGE IN THE RESURRECTION BODY (1 Cor. 15:51) IS FROM A MORTAL TO AN IMMORTAL BODY (42,53); IT IS NOT FROM A MATERIAL TO AN IMMATERIAL BODY. 2) "CHANGE" IS CHANGE IN THE PHYSICAL BODY, NOT CHANGE OF THE PHYSICAL BODY FOR A NON-PHYSICAL BODY. 3) WE HAVE THE SAME BODY AS WHEN WE WERE YOUNGER, YET THERE ARE CHANGES IN IT. a. Changes are in secondary qualities, not primary ones. b. Changes are accidental not substantial.
Slide 28 OBJECTIONS AGAINST THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF CHRIST’S RESURRECTION
Slide 29 Objections to a Physical Resurrection Resurrection Body Called a "Spiritual Body" (1 Cor. 15:44) Means Immortal, not Immaterial; Dominated by Spirit but not devoid of matter. "Spiritual" rock, water, food (1 Cor. 10) and man (2:15) were all material. Body (soma) always refers to the physical body in N.T. when used of an individual human.
Slide 30 Objections to a Physical Resurrection "Christ Appeared" (aorist passive) = "Made Himself Visible" (cf Acts 10:40, Lk. 24:34, 1 Cor. 15:5). He could be seen with the naked eye. The same word is used before the Resurrection (Jn. 6:36; 14:9). The same word is used of preresurrection bodies (2 Cor. 25:21; Acts 7:26). What appeared is natural; the way was supernatural. This confuses things out of sight with things invisible and immaterial by nature (e.g., glass; stealth bomber).
Slide 31 Objections to a Physical Resurrection The Resurrection Is Called A "Vision" (Lk. 24:23; Acts 26:19) It is never called a "vision" in the Gospels or Epistles (Lk. 24:23 refers to a vision of angels, not of Christ). Visions (2 Cor. 12) are different from appearances (Acts 9) (Spiritual vs. Physical; no physical manifestations vs. physical manifestations). It is called an appearance (1 Cor. 15:6) like that to the other apostles. Probably a reference to Ananias’ vision to tell Paul what to do (Act 9:10). Even if it is not, it is called an appearance in 1 Cor. 15:6, and so it would be used interchangeably with it here.
Slide 32 Objections to a Physical Resurrection He Only Appeared to Believers He appeared to the most hostile unbeliever of the day— Saul (Acts 9). He appeared to his unbelieving brother, James (1 Cor. 15:7; Jn. 7:5). Selectivity doesn't prove invisibility (Mt. 13:58, miracles).
Slide 33 Objections to a Physical Resurrection He Rose Through Undisturbed Grave Clothes (Jn. 20) Nowhere does it say that He passed through the grave clothes (even though He could have). We know it is false—the napkin (headcloth) was disturbed. The Resurrection Differs from Resuscitation. Resurrection is more than, but not less than, a resuscitation. The resurrection body is immortal, not immaterial (1 Cor. 15:42, 53).
Slide 34 Objections to a Physical Resurrection He Walked Through Closed Doors (Jn. 20:19) The text does not say how he got in (cf. Acts 12:10). He could have done this before the Resurrection too. He (and Peter) walked on water before the Resurrection (Jn. 6:16-20). Physical bodies are mostly empty space (and could pass through one another if miraculously adjusted).
Slide 35 Objections to a Physical Resurrection He Appeared and Disappeared Immediately (Lk. 24:36) Philip was suddenly taken away in a physical body (Acts 8:39). Miracles are by nature immediate (Mt. 8:3) The resurrection body has more power, but it is not less physical.
Slide 36 Objections to a Physical Resurrection Physical Body Decays and Scatters Losing particles doesn't mean we are not physical. Gaining new particles doesn't mean we are not material. Our body changes particles every seven years, yet it is the same body. Jesus' body didn't undergo corruption (Acts 2:31).
Slide 37 Objections to a Physical Resurrection "God Will Destroy the Body" (1 Cor. 6:13) This reference is to the process of death, not to the nature of the Resurrection. Death "destroyed" Jesus' stomach, yet he ate four times. We don't need legs and arms either.
Slide 38 Objections to a Physical Resurrection "Flesh And Blood Cannot Enter the Kingdom of God" (1 Cor. 15:50) This is a Semitic phrase meaning "mortal" (cf. Mt. 16:17). The reference is to "corruptible" flesh and blood (v. 50). The resurrection body has incorruptible flesh and bones (Lk. 24:39).
Slide 39 Objections to a Physical Resurrection Jesus Appeared in a "Different Form." A parallel passage in Lk. 24:13-32 says they were "kept from recognizing him" (the miracles were not in his body but in the disciple’s mind). His body was not of a different physical form, since he ate (Lk. 24:30). Doctrine should not be based on an obscure or doubtful passage (and this is both).
Slide 40 Objections to a Physical Resurrection He Was Raised "in the Spirit" (1 Pet. 3:18) Better translated "by the [Holy] Spirit" (NIV, NKJV). Another reference to a "resurrection" is in v. 21, which is always a physical resurrection in N.T. “In the Spirit" doesn't mean "no body" or “no flesh“, for Scripture uses “in the Spirit” before death also.
Slide 41 Objections to a Physical Resurrection He is Called "Life-Giving Spirit" (1 Cor. 15:45) This reference is not to the nature but to the origin of the resurrection body (to its source not its substance). Otherwise, Adam (by contrast) had no soul (Gen. 2:7). The "Life-giving spiritual being" had a "body" (v. 44).
Slide 42 Objections to a Physical Resurrection "It Does Not Yet Appear What We Shall Be..." (1 Jn. 3:2) This reference is not to the nature of the resurrection body but to our status in heaven We do know what our resurrection body will be like, but it will be like Christ's (Phil. 3:21; 1 Cor. 15:20).
Slide 43 Objections to a Physical Resurrection We Will Be "Like Angels" Who Are Spirits (Mt. 22:30) The reference here is not to the bodies of angels but to sexless nature of angels (they don't marry). It means the deathless nature of angels as in Luke 20:36.
Slide 44 Objections to a Physical Resurrection We Will All Be Changed (1 Cor. 15:51) True, but the change is from mortal to immortal, not from material to immaterial. The change is not in the primary qualities (e.g., number, extension), but only in the secondary ones (e.g., time, place).
Slide 45 Objections to a Physical Resurrection He was not recognized by His own disciples. “Their eyes were restrained" (Lk ). They were perplexed (Lk. 24:17-21). They were in sorrow (Jn. 20:11-15). It was still dark (Jn. 20:14-15). The distance was great (Jn. 21:4). They were startled (Lk. 24:36-37). They were disbelieving (Jn. 20:24-25). They were spiritually dull (Lk. 24:25-26).
Slide 46 Objections to a Physical Resurrection NOTE: THE DIFFICULTY WAS ONLY MOMENTARY. BEFORE THE APPEARANCE WAS OVER THEY WERE COMPLETELY CONVINCED BY: TOUCHING HIM (JN. 20:17). SEEING HIS SCARS (LK. 24:40; JN. 20:27-29). OBSERVING HIM EAT (LK. 24:41-42). LISTENING TO HIS TEACHING (ACTS 1:3).
Slide 47 INADEQUATE EXPLANATIONS OF CHRIST’S RESURRECTION
Slide 48 The ‘Apparent’ Death Explanation (H. E. G. PAULUS, THE LIFE OF JESUS, 1828) IT FAILS TO TAKE SERIOUSLY THE EXTENT OF JESUS' INJURIES. He had no sleep the night before. He was beaten several times and whipped. He collapsed carrying His cross. His hands and feet were in nailed to the cross. Crucifixion causes the lung cavity to collapse. His side was pierced by a spear.
Slide 49 The ‘Apparent’ Death Explanation IT FAILS TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE NATURE OF JESUS’ DEATH AND BURIAL. His death cry was heard by those standing by. His side was pierced by a spear. His legs were not broken (to speed death). He was embalmed and wrapped in 75 lbs. of material. His corpse was checked by Pilate (Mark 15:44-45). His corpse was placed in a sealed and guarded tomb.
Slide 50 The ‘Apparent’ Death Explanation IT FAILS TO ACCOUNT FOR THE CHARACTER OF CHRIST. It makes Jesus into a false prophet. It makes Jesus into a charlatan. But He was a person of higher moral character. IT FAILS TO ACCOUNT FOR THE CONVERSION OF HIS DISCIPLES (see David F. Strauss).
Slide 51 The Myth Explanation (CF. FRAZER, GOLDEN BOUGH, 1906) It fails to recognize the significant difference between non-Christian belief in a spiritual afterlife (immortality) and Christian belief in the bodily resurrection. It fails to take into account the important difference between non-Christian belief in reincarnation (into a different body) and Christian belief in resurrection (of the same body). It fails to understand the O.T. is the source of N.T. teaching, not Greek and Roman views.
Slide 52 The Myth Explanation (CF. FRAZER, GOLDEN BOUGH, 1906) It fails to take note of the late date for most of these non-Christian myth stories (2nd century f.). It makes honest N.T. witnesses into fabricators and liars (2 Peter 1:16). There is insufficient time between the event (33 A.D.) and the first records (40-50 A.D.) for legendary development.
Slide 53 The Myth Explanation (CF. FRAZER, GOLDEN BOUGH, 1906) It overlooks the control of eyewitnesses and the apostles over the growth of legends. It fails to account for the transformation of the disciples from cowards to martyrs. The gospel story itself shows no sign of legendary development as compared to the apocryphal stories (2nd-3rd century).
Slide 54 The Hallucination Explanation IT IGNORES HISTORICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE RELIABILITY OF THE GOSPELS. IT DOES NOT ACCOUNT FOR THE MIRACULOUS TRANSFORMATION OF THE DISCIPLES. IT DOES NOT EXPLAIN HOW 500 PEOPLE ON 12 OCCASIONS OVER 40 DAYS WERE ALL DECEIVED.
Slide 55 The Hallucination Explanation IT DOES NOT ACCOUNT FOR THE INITIAL SKEPTICISM OF THE DISCIPLES. IT DOES NOT EXPLAIN THE FACT THAT THE RESURRECTION WAS FOREIGN TO THE MINDS OF THE DISCIPLES. IT DOES NOT ACCOUNT FOR THE EMPTY TOMB.
Slide 56 The Stolen Body Explanation Reasons the Disciples did not steal it: It is contrary to their known character It is contrary to their willingness to die for their belief in the resurrec- tion. It is contrary to their belief that this was the center of their faith.
Slide 57 The Stolen Body Explanation Reasons the Disciples did not steal it: It is contrary to the fact that no one ever recanted in spite of the fact that they would have been prime candi- dates, given their persecution. It is contrary to the conversions of James and Paul, who would never have been convinced to defect to Christianity on such a basis.
Slide 58 The Stolen Body Explanation Reasons no one else stole the body: This is contrary to the disciples experi- ences after Jesus’ death. What did they see, hear, and touch? This is contrary to the conversion of James and Saul. How could such critics be so duped? There is not a shred of evidence to support it. Body could have been produced to refute this.
Slide 59 The Parapsychology Explanation (hallucination due to telepathy) IT DOES NOT EXPLAIN: What happened to Jesus’ body. Where Jesus got His new spiritual body. The bodily nature of Christ’s resur- rection. The appearance to 500 (1 Cor. 15). The later appearance to Paul. (see Michael Perry, Easter Enigma)
Slide 60 The Parapsychology Explanation (hallucination due to telepathy) IT DOES NOT EXPLAIN: How Jesus can be exonerated from the charge of deception. The long (40 days) and numerous (12) appearances of Christ. How He could appear to those aware of His death. (when not being aware is the key of this psychological condition). (see Michael Perry, Easter Enigma)
Slide 61 The Reincarnation Explanation RESURRECTIONREINCARNATION IMMORTAL BODY MORAL BODY ONE-TIME EVENT MANY-TIMES EVENT ULTIMATE STATE INTERMEDIATE STATES PERFECTEDIN PROCESS
Slide 62 The ‘Vision’ Explanation VISIONAPPEARANCE INTERNALEXTERNAL NO PHYSICAL MANIFESTATION PHYSICAL MANIFESTATION (VOICE, LIGHT, BODY) 2 CORINTHIANS 121 CORINTHIANS 15 DANIEL 2, 7GENESIS REVELATION 1MATTHEW 17
Slide 63 Accepted Historical Facts that Prove the Resurrection: (1) Jesus died due to the rigors of crucifixion. (2) Jesus was buried. (3) His disciples doubted and despaired because Jesus' death challenged their hopes. (4) The tomb in which Jesus had been buried was discovered to be empty just a few days later.
Slide 64 Twelve Historical Facts (5) The disciples had real experiences that they believed were actual appearances of the risen Jesus. (6) The disciples were trans- formed and were even willing to die for the truth of these events. (7) This gospel message was the very center of preach- ing in the early church.
Slide 65 Twelve Historical Facts (8) The gospel was even pro- claimed in Jerusalem, the city where Jesus had died. (9) The Christian church was firmly established by these disciples. (10) The primary day of wor- ship was Sunday—the day Jesus was reported to have risen.
Slide 66 Twelve Historical Facts (11) James, Jesus' previously skeptical brother, was converted when he believed he saw the resurrected Jesus. (12) Paul, a leader in the persecution of the church, was also converted by a real experience which he believed to be the risen Jesus.
Slide 67 SO WHAT? CONSEQUENCES OF DENYING THE RESURRECTION: On Creation (Rom 8) On Salvation (I Cor. 15) On Character of Christ (Lk. 24) On Humanity of Christ (I Jn. 4:2) On Christian Hope (I Thess. 4)
Slide 68 IN BRIEF, God Failed, Christ Lied, No Hope.
Slide 70 Rabbi Accepts Resurrection of Jesus In the May 7, 1979 issue of Time magazine Pinchas Lapide argues, "If the disciples were totally disappointed and on the verge of desperate flight because of the very real reason of the crucifixion, it took another very real reason in order to transform them from a band of disheartened and dejected Jews into the most self-confident missionary society in world history." He concludes that a bodily resurrection could possibly have been that reason.
Slide 71 Rabbi Accepts Resurrection of Jesus A letter to Time magazine in the June 4, 1979 issue responds: “Pinchas Lapide's logic escapes me. He believes it is a possibility that Jesus was resurrected by God. At the same time he does not accept Jesus as the Messiah. But Jesus said that He was the Messiah. Why would God resurrect a liar?”