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Goals for Class To understand different types of questions to enable students in a range of thinking: --convergent and divergent questions --lower and.

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Presentation on theme: "Goals for Class To understand different types of questions to enable students in a range of thinking: --convergent and divergent questions --lower and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Goals for Class To understand different types of questions to enable students in a range of thinking: --convergent and divergent questions --lower and higher order questions To learn how to use Revised Bloom Taxonomy to design units/lessons and questioning To learn how to respond to students while questioning and how to respond to students’ questions. --wait time, positive reinforcers, adjusting and re-focusing, rephrasing

2 RIPTS Standard 5 CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING

3 Link to RIPTS Standard 5 CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING Teachers create instructional opportunities to encourage students’ development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills. Teachers design lessons that extend beyond factual recall and challenge students to develop higher-level cognitive skills. 5.2 pose questions that encourage students to view, analyze, and interpret ideas from multiple perspectives. 5.3 make instructional decisions about when to provide information, when to clarify, when to pose a question, and when to let a student struggle to try to solve a problem. 5.4 engage students in generating knowledge, testing hypotheses, and exploring methods of inquiry and standards of evidence. 5.5 use tasks that engage students in exploration, discovery, and hands-on activities.

4 The Art and Science of Questioning An essential skill for interactive teaching and learning

5 The Making of a Scientist: Richard Feynman

6 I learned very early the difference between knowing the name of something and knowing something. -Richard Feynman

7 Why Is Questioning Important? CAUSES LEARNERS TO EXAMPLE OF QUESTIONS Think in different ways Convergent (one answer) Which has eight appendages--and octopus or squid? Divergent (many possible answers) If you were an aquarium director, which cephalopod would you place in the aquarium? Explain your reasons. Test their own ideas Observe the squid: Are there eight arms or ten arms? Transfer their ideas from one situation to another How can you use the same procedure to print a fish? Discuss words they use to describe their ideas What does the word “cephalopod” mean? What is the “pod” of the squid? Extend the range of evidence available to learners How does a squid move like an inflated balloon that is released? Explain their ideas How does a octopus defend itself from predators?

8 Research indicates that questioning is valuable in enabling students to think in different ways and to develop ways of learning. - Larry Lowery

9 The art of raising challenging questions is easily as important as the art of giving clear answers. -Jerome Bruner

10 Blosser’s Types of Questions Open (Divergent) -To pre-assess -To promote discussion or student interaction -To cause students to think in different ways Closed(Convergent) -To assess retention of information -To focus thinking on a particular point

11 Blosser’s Types of Questions Rhetorical To emphasize a point or reinforce an idea or statementManagerial To keep the classroom operations moving To keep the classroom operations moving --The squid has ten appendages, right? --At the last class, I taught the interactive teaching model called direct instruction, right? --Will you turn to page 115, please? --Who needs more time to finish the drawing?

12 The nature of each question shapes one’s response to it.

13 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy is used to plan effective questioning. Cognitive Processes: Creating Creating Evaluating Evaluating Analyzing Analyzing Applying Applying Understanding Understanding Remembering Remembering

14 About Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy What is RBT? What is RBT? A classification of different ways of thinking A classification of different ways of thinking Ways of thinking ranked from lower to higher order. Ways of thinking ranked from lower to higher order. When was RBT developed? When was RBT developed? Developed in the 1956 by Benjamin Bloom. For six years in 1990’s Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy and made changes. Developed in the 1956 by Benjamin Bloom. For six years in 1990’s Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy and made changes.

15 Original Terms New Terms Evaluation Evaluation Synthesis Synthesis Analysis Analysis Application Application Comprehension Comprehension Knowledge Knowledge Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

16 RBT Cognitive Processes With Knowledge Dimension KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION Remem- ber Under- stand ApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreate Factual Knowledge ListSum- marize ClassifyOrderRankCombine Conceptual Knowledge DescribeInter- pret Experi- ment ExplainAssessPlan Procedural Knowledge TabulatePredictCalculateDiffer- entiate ConcludeCompose Meta- Cognitive Knowledge Appro- priate Use ExecuteConstructAchieveActionActualize COGNITIVE PROCESSES DIMENSION

17 About Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Who uses RBT and why is used? Administrators use RBT for curriculum planning. Administrators use RBT for curriculum planning. Teachers use RBT for planning instruction: Teachers use RBT for planning instruction: To improve questioning and student thinking To improve questioning and student thinking To plan and guide learners through a learning experience To plan and guide learners through a learning experience Planning unit goals and lesson objectives Planning unit goals and lesson objectives Designing different types of assessment Designing different types of assessment Creating activities Creating activities Questioning during instruction Questioning during instruction

18 Remembering The learner is able to remember information. Remembering Remembering Recognizing Recognizing Recalling Recalling Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION VERB Factual Knowledge List Conceptual Knowledge Describe Procedural Knowledge Tabulate Meta-Cognitive Knowledge Appropriate Use

19 Remembering List List Memorize Memorize Relate Relate Show Show Locate Locate Distinguish Distinguish Give example Give example Reproduce Reproduce Quote Quote Repeat Repeat Label Label Recall Recall Know Know Group Group Read Read Write Write Outline Outline Group Listen Choose Recite Review Quote Record Match Select Underline Cite Sort Recall or recognition of specific information

20 Understanding The learner explains the information or concepts. Interpreting Interpreting Exemplifying Exemplifying Summarizing Summarizing Inferring Inferring Paraphrasing Paraphrasing Classifying Classifying Comparing Comparing Explaining Explaining Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION VERB Factual Knowledge Summarize Conceptual Knowledge Interpret Procedural Knowledge Predict Meta-Cognitive Knowledge Execute

21 Understanding Restate Restate Identify Identify Discuss Discuss Retell Retell Research Research Annotate Annotate Translate Translate Give examples Give examples Paraphrase Paraphrase Reorganize Reorganize Associate Associate Describe Report Recognize Review Observe Outline Account for Interpret Give main idea Estimate Define in own words Understanding of given information

22 Applying The learner makes use of information in new ways, in a context different from the one in which it was learned. The learner makes use of information in new ways, in a context different from the one in which it was learned. Implementing Implementing Carrying out Carrying out Using Using Executing Executing Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION VERB Factual Knowledge Classify Conceptual Knowledge Experiment Procedural Knowledge Calculate Meta-Cognitive Knowledge Construct

23 Applying Translate Translate Manipulate Manipulate Exhibit Exhibit Illustrate Illustrate Calculate Calculate Interpret Interpret Make Make Practice Practice Apply Apply Operate Operate Interview Interview Paint Change Compute Sequence Show Solve Collect Demonstrate Dramatize Construct Use Adapt Draw Using strategies, concepts, principles and theories in new situations

24 Analyzing The learner distinguishes the different parts. Comparing Comparing Organizing Organizing Deconstructing Deconstructing Attributing Attributing Relating parts Relating parts Differentiating Differentiating Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION VERB Factual Knowledge Order Conceptual Knowledge Explain Procedural Knowledge Differentiate Meta-Cognitive Knowledge Achieve

25 Analyzing Distinguish Distinguish Question Question Appraise Appraise Experiment Experiment Inspect Inspect Examine Examine Probe Probe Separate Separate Inquire Inquire Arrange Arrange Investigate Investigate Sift Sift Research Research Calculate Calculate Criticize Criticize Compare Contrast Survey Detect Group Order Sequence Test Debate Analyze Diagram Relate Dissect Categorize Discriminate Breaking information down into its component elements

26 Evaluating The learner defends a concept or idea, makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment. Evaluating Evaluating Checking Checking Critiquing Critiquing Judging Judging Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION VERB Factual Knowledge Rank Conceptual Knowledge Assess Procedural Knowledge Conclude Meta-Cognitive Knowledge Action

27 Evaluating Judge Judge Rate Rate Validate Validate Predict Predict Assess Assess Score Score Revise Revise Infer Infer Determine Determine Prioritize Prioritize Tell why Tell why Compare Compare Evaluate Evaluate Defend Defend Select Select Measure Measure Choose Conclude Deduce Debate Justify Recommend Discriminate Appraise Value Probe Argue Decide Criticize Rank Reject Judging the value of ideas, materials and methods by developing and applying standards and criteria.

28 Creating The learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned. Hypothesizing Hypothesizing Generating Generating Planning Planning Producing Producing Inventing Inventing Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION VERB Factual Knowledge Combine Conceptual Knowledge Plan Procedural Knowledge Compose Meta-Cognitive Knowledge Actualize

29 Creating Compose Compose Assemble Assemble Organize Organize Invent Invent Compile Compile Forecast Forecast Devise Devise Propose Propose Construct Construct Plan Plan Prepare Prepare Develop Develop Originate Originate Imagine Imagine Generate Generate Formulate Improve Act Predict Produce Blend Set up Devise Concoct Compile Putting together ideas or elements to develop a original idea or engage in creative thinking.

30 Strategies for Teaching with Bloom’s Required-Optional Required-Optional Label some activities as “required” while others are “optional.” Label some activities as “required” while others are “optional.” Cognitive Process of the Day Cognitive Process of the Day Work on a level of thinking singled out for particular attention (ANALZYING: comparing and contrasting) Work on a level of thinking singled out for particular attention (ANALZYING: comparing and contrasting) Teach learners to use Bloom’s. Teach learners to use Bloom’s. Have learners develop their own activities using the taxonomy. Have learners develop their own activities using the taxonomy. Lower Level First, Then Design a higher level Lower Level First, Then Design a higher level Some learners work through the lower levels and then the learners design their own activities at the higher levels Some learners work through the lower levels and then the learners design their own activities at the higher levels

31 Strategies for Teaching with Bloom’s Lower Level First, Then Higher Lvel Activities Lower Level First, Then Higher Lvel Activities All learners work through the lower level stages and then select at least one activity from each of the higher levels. All learners work through the lower level stages and then select at least one activity from each of the higher levels. All learners work through first two levels and then select activities from any other level All learners work through first two levels and then select activities from any other level Differentiate Instruction. Accommodate Diverse Learners Differentiate Instruction. Accommodate Diverse Learners Some learners work on an activity at a lower level while others work on an activity at higher levels Some learners work on an activity at a lower level while others work on an activity at higher levels Select Any Activity or Product at any Level: Select Any Activity or Product at any Level: Create a list of activities and products. Learners select activities from any level. Create a list of activities and products. Learners select activities from any level.

32 Questions and Statements Stems for Remembering What happened after...? What happened after...? How many...? How many...? What is...? What is...? Who was it that...? Who was it that...? Name the...? Name the...? Find the definition of… Find the definition of… Describe what happened after… Describe what happened after… Who spoke to...? Who spoke to...? Which is true or false...? Which is true or false...? Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

33 Questions and Statements Stems for Understanding Explain why… Explain why… Write in your own words… Write in your own words… How would you explain…? How would you explain…? Develop a brief outline...? Develop a brief outline...? What do you think could have happened next...? What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? What was the main idea...? Can you clarify…? Can you clarify…? llustrate…? llustrate…? Does everyone act in the way that.. does? Does everyone act in the way that.. does? Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

34 Questions and Statements Stems for Applying What is another example where…? What is another example where…? Group by characteristics such as…? Group by characteristics such as…? Which factors would you change if…? Which factors would you change if…? What questions would you ask of…? What questions would you ask of…? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…? From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…? Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

35 Questions and Statements Stems for Analyzing Which events could not have happened? Which events could not have happened? If...happened, what might the ending have been? If...happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...? How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur? Why did...changes occur? Explain what must have happened when...? Explain what must have happened when...? What are some or the problems of...? What are some or the problems of...? Distinguish between...? Distinguish between...? What were some of the motives behind..? What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point? What was the turning point? What was the problem with...? What was the problem with...? Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

36 Questions and Statements Stems for Evaluating Which is the better solution to...? Which is the better solution to...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Defend your position about...? Defend your position about...? Decide: Is a good or bad thing? What are your reasons? Decide: Is a good or bad thing? What are your reasons? How would you have handled...? How would you have handled...? What changes to.. would you recommend? What changes to.. would you recommend? How effective are...? How effective are...? What are the consequences..? What are the consequences..? What influence will....have on our lives? What influence will....have on our lives? What are the pros and cons of....? What are the pros and cons of....? Why is....of value? Why is....of value? What are the alternatives? What are the alternatives? Who will gain & who will lose? Who will gain & who will lose? Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

37 Questions and Statements Stems for Creating Design a...to...? Design a...to...? Create a possible solution to...? Create a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...? Devise your own way to...? Devise your own way to...? What would happen if...? What would happen if...? How many ways can you...? How many ways can you...? Create new and unusual uses for...? Create new and unusual uses for...? Develop a proposal which would...? Develop a proposal which would...? Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

38 First, work learners through lower level questions. Why use these questions? To confirm their knowledge of factual and conceptual knowledge To confirm their knowledge of factual and conceptual knowledge To diagnose their strengths and weaknesses To diagnose their strengths and weaknesses To review and/or summarize knowledge that has been learned To review and/or summarize knowledge that has been learned Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

39 Then, move learners to higher level questions. Why? To help them transform information and gain new meaning and to Reflect and think more deeply and critically Reflect and think more deeply and critically Problem solve Problem solve Extend their thinking when you present information, teach a concept, or develop a skill Extend their thinking when you present information, teach a concept, or develop a skill Seek information on their own or think creatively. Seek information on their own or think creatively. Creating Evaluating Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering

40 Putting it all together in Bloom’s Bakery hp?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy hp?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy Click on url. Scroll to bottom for the animation. The layers of the cake represent the levels of learning with each layer representing increasing complexity. All of the levels of the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy come together to form a complete learning experience just as the animation comes together to form a complete cake.

41 NOW IT’S YOUR TURN Using Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy, plan instructional objectives, questions/statements and activities that cause students to think in different ways. NOW IT’S YOUR TURN Using Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy, plan instructional objectives, questions/statements and activities that cause students to think in different ways. See Handout. Refer to Arends text, pp. 115,

42 Make a Bloom’s Chart for your topic. See Handout. Refer to Arends text, pps. 115, COGNITIVE PROCESS LEARNING OUTCOME QUESTIONS STATEMENTS Remembering The learners will be able to Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating TOPIC:

43 Example - Bloom’s Chart Delicious Squid COGNITIVE PROCESS LEARNING OUTCOME QUESTIONS STATEMENTS Remembering The learners will be able to remember the structures and functions of a squid. Match the structure with the function. Understanding The learners will be able to explain how a squid defends itself from its predator. How does a squid defend itself from a predator? Applying The learners will be able to demonstrate how a squid moves using the balloon. How can you demonstrate how a squid moves with a balloon? Analyzing The learners will be able to compare and contrast a squid an octopus. How is a squid similar and different from an octopus? Evaluating The learners will be able to judge which cephalopod is best for the city aquarium. Decide which is best for a city aquarium: Squid, octopus, cuttlefish, or nautilus. Creating The learners will be able to create a new species of cephalopod. Create a new species of cephalopod.

44 Responding to Students Wait Time Wait Time Using Positive Reinforcers Using Positive Reinforcers Using Probes Using Probes Adjusting and Re-focusing Adjusting and Re-focusing Rephrasing Rephrasing Responding to Students’ Questions Responding to Students’ Questions

45 Responding to Students Wait Time Teacher Question Pause (wait time 1) Pause (wait time 1) Student Response Student Response Pause (wait time 2) Pause (wait time 2) Teacher Response Teacher Response See Arends, pp

46 Responding to Students Wait Time Wait Time I (wait several seconds) Wait Time I (wait several seconds) Wait Time II (allow other learners to respond after a learner responds) Wait Time II (allow other learners to respond after a learner responds)

47 Responding to Students Using Positive Reinforcers Positively reinforce the student by making positive statements, nodding, smiling, eye contact. Positively reinforce the student by making positive statements, nodding, smiling, eye contact. Superb! You provided excellent reasons! Wow! You really know your facts! Thanks for sharing your great thinking.

48 Responding to Students Using Probes If a student provides a superficial, incomplete response, use probing questions to cause the student to clarify or extend his/her thinking. Teacher: How does a squid defend itself? Student: A squid uses ink. Teacher: Tell me more. How does a squid use the ink to defend itself.

49 Responding to Students Adjusting or Re-focusing If a student provides a response that is irrelevant or out of context, ask questions or make statements to cause the student to tie the response to the topic. If a student provides a response that is irrelevant or out of context, ask questions or make statements to cause the student to tie the response to the topic. Teacher: What are the squid’s predators? Student: It eats shrimp and fish. Teacher: You’re stating what a squid eats. A predator eats a squid. What are predators that eat a squid ?

50 Responding to Students Adjusting or Re-focusing If a student provides a wrong response, don’t dwell on it. Ask other students to add to the response or provide the right response. What other ideas do you (class) have? or Do you agree or disagree? Explain your thinking.

51 Responding to Students Rephrasing If a student provides a wrong response or no response, don’t tell the student he or she is wrong. Reword the question, ask a lower level question, and/or provide additional information to guide the student to the right answer. Teacher: How is a squid well-adapted? Student: No response. Teacher: An adaptation is a change in an organism that allows it to live successfully in its environment. Think about the squid’s body parts. What are the squid’s body parts? How are the body parts help it live successfully in the open ocean?

52 Responding to Students’ Questions Above all, don’t fake it! If a student asks a question and you don’t know the answer, don’t fake it. If a student asks a question and you don’t know the answer, don’t fake it. Propose a plan to answer the question. Work with the student(s) to identify resources to answer the question. Propose a plan to answer the question. Work with the student(s) to identify resources to answer the question. How could we answer this question? How could we answer this question? Volunteer to find the answer yourself. Volunteer to find the answer yourself.

53 Sources Arends, R. Learn to Teach. Arends, R. Learn to Teach. oom/blooms.htm oom/blooms.htm oom/blooms.htm oom/blooms.htm e=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy e=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy e=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy e=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy


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