Presentation on theme: "Goals for Class To understand different types of questions to enable students in a range of thinking: --convergent and divergent questions --lower and."— Presentation transcript:
1 Goals for ClassTo understand different types of questions to enable students in a range of thinking:--convergent and divergent questions--lower and higher order questionsTo learn how to use Revised Bloom Taxonomy to design units/lessons and questioningTo learn how to respond to students while questioning and how to respond to students’ questions.--wait time, positive reinforcers, adjusting and re-focusing, rephrasing
2 RIPTS Standard 5 CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
3 Link to RIPTS Standard 5 CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING Teachers create instructional opportunities to encourage students’ development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills. Teachers...5.1 design lessons that extend beyond factual recall and challenge students to develop higher-level cognitive skills.5.2 pose questions that encourage students to view, analyze, and interpret ideas from multiple perspectives.5.3 make instructional decisions about when to provide information, when to clarify, when to pose a question, and when to let a student struggle to try to solve a problem.5.4 engage students in generating knowledge, testing hypotheses, and exploring methods of inquiry and standards of evidence.5.5 use tasks that engage students in exploration, discovery, and hands-on activities.
4 The Art and Science of Questioning An essential skill for interactive teaching and learning
6 I learned very early the difference between knowing the name of something and knowing something. -Richard Feynman
7 Why Is Questioning Important? CAUSES LEARNERS TOEXAMPLE OF QUESTIONSThink in different waysConvergent (one answer)Which has eight appendages--and octopus or squid?Divergent (many possible answers)If you were an aquarium director, which cephalopod would you place in the aquarium? Explain your reasons.Test their own ideasObserve the squid: Are there eight arms or ten arms?Transfer their ideas from one situation to anotherHow can you use the same procedure to print a fish?Discuss words they use to describe their ideasWhat does the word “cephalopod” mean? What is the “pod” of the squid?Extend the range of evidence available to learnersHow does a squid move like an inflated balloon that is released?Explain their ideasHow does a octopus defend itself from predators?
8 Research indicates that questioning is valuable in enabling students to think in different ways and to develop ways of learning.- Larry Lowery
9 The art of raising challenging questions is easily as important as the art of giving clear answers. -Jerome Bruner
10 Blosser’s Types of Questions Closed(Convergent)-To assess retention of information-To focus thinking on a particular pointOpen(Divergent)-To pre-assess-To promote discussion or student interaction-To cause students to think in different ways
11 Blosser’s Types of Questions ManagerialTo keep the classroom operations movingRhetoricalTo emphasize a point or reinforce an idea or statement--The squid has ten appendages, right?--At the last class, I taught the interactive teaching model called direct instruction, right?--Will you turn to page 115, please?--Who needs more time to finish the drawing?
12 The nature of each question shapes one’s response to it.
13 Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy is used to plan effective questioning. Cognitive Processes:CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
14 About Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy What is RBT?A classification of different ways of thinkingWays of thinking ranked from lower to higher order.When was RBT developed?Developed in the 1956 by Benjamin Bloom. For six years in 1990’s Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy and made changes.
15 Original Terms New Terms EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
17 About Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Who uses RBT and why is used?Administrators use RBT for curriculum planning.Teachers use RBT for planning instruction:To improve questioning and student thinkingTo plan and guide learners through a learning experiencePlanning unit goals and lesson objectivesDesigning different types of assessmentCreating activitiesQuestioning during instruction
18 Remembering The learner is able to remember information. Remembering RecognizingRecallingKNOWLEDGE DIMENSIONVERBFactual KnowledgeListConceptual KnowledgeDescribeProcedural KnowledgeTabulateMeta-Cognitive KnowledgeAppropriate UseCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
19 Recall or recognition of specific information RememberingListMemorizeRelateShowLocateDistinguishGive exampleReproduceQuoteRepeatLabelRecallKnowGroupReadWriteOutlineGroupListenChooseReciteReviewQuoteRecordMatchSelectUnderlineCiteSortRecall or recognition of specific information
20 Understanding The learner explains the information or concepts. InterpretingExemplifyingSummarizingInferringParaphrasingClassifyingComparingExplainingKNOWLEDGE DIMENSIONVERBFactual KnowledgeSummarizeConceptual KnowledgeInterpretProcedural KnowledgePredictMeta-Cognitive KnowledgeExecuteCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
21 Understanding of given information RestateIdentifyDiscussRetellResearchAnnotateTranslateGive examplesParaphraseReorganizeAssociateDescribeReportRecognizeReviewObserveOutlineAccount forInterpretGive main ideaEstimateDefine in own wordsUnderstanding of given information
22 Applying The learner makes use of information in new ways, in a context different from the one in which it was learned.ImplementingCarrying outUsingExecutingKNOWLEDGE DIMENSIONVERBFactual KnowledgeClassifyConceptual KnowledgeExperimentProcedural KnowledgeCalculateMeta-Cognitive KnowledgeConstructCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
23 Using strategies, concepts, principles and theories in new situations ApplyingTranslateManipulateExhibitIllustrateCalculateInterpretMakePracticeApplyOperateInterviewPaintChangeComputeSequenceShowSolveCollectDemonstrateDramatizeConstructUseAdaptDrawUsing strategies, concepts, principles and theories in new situations
24 Analyzing The learner distinguishes the different parts. Comparing OrganizingDeconstructingAttributingRelating partsDifferentiatingKNOWLEDGE DIMENSIONVERBFactual KnowledgeOrderConceptual KnowledgeExplainProcedural KnowledgeDifferentiateMeta-Cognitive KnowledgeAchieveCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
25 Breaking information down into its component elements AnalyzingCompareContrastSurveyDetectGroupOrderSequenceTestDebateAnalyzeDiagramRelateDissectCategorizeDiscriminateDistinguishQuestionAppraiseExperimentInspectExamineProbeSeparateInquireArrangeInvestigateSiftResearchCalculateCriticizeBreaking information down into its component elements
26 EvaluatingThe learner defends a concept or idea, makes decisions based on in-depth reflection, criticism and assessment.EvaluatingCheckingCritiquingJudgingKNOWLEDGE DIMENSIONVERBFactual KnowledgeRankConceptual KnowledgeAssessProcedural KnowledgeConcludeMeta-Cognitive KnowledgeActionCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
27 Evaluating Choose Judge Conclude Rate Deduce Validate Debate Predict JustifyRecommendDiscriminateAppraiseValueProbeArgueDecideCriticizeRankRejectJudgeRateValidatePredictAssessScoreReviseInferDeterminePrioritizeTell whyCompareEvaluateDefendSelectMeasureJudging the value of ideas, materials and methods by developing and applying standards and criteria.
28 CreatingThe learner creates new ideas and information using what has been previously learned.HypothesizingGeneratingPlanningProducingInventingKNOWLEDGE DIMENSIONVERBFactual KnowledgeCombineConceptual KnowledgePlanProcedural KnowledgeComposeMeta-Cognitive KnowledgeActualizeCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
29 Creating Formulate Compose Assemble Improve Organize Act Invent PredictProduceBlendSet upDeviseConcoctCompileComposeAssembleOrganizeInventCompileForecastDeviseProposeConstructPlanPrepareDevelopOriginateImagineGeneratePutting together ideas or elements to develop a original idea or engage in creative thinking.
30 Strategies for Teaching with Bloom’s Required-OptionalLabel some activities as “required” while others are “optional.”Cognitive Process of the DayWork on a level of thinking singled out for particular attention (ANALZYING: comparing and contrasting)Teach learners to use Bloom’s.Have learners develop their own activities using the taxonomy.Lower Level First, Then Design a higher levelSome learners work through the lower levels and then the learners design their own activities at the higher levels
31 Strategies for Teaching with Bloom’s Lower Level First, Then Higher Lvel ActivitiesAll learners work through the lower level stages and then select at least one activity from each of the higher levels.All learners work through first two levels and then select activities from any other levelDifferentiate Instruction. Accommodate Diverse LearnersSome learners work on an activity at a lower level while others work on an activity at higher levelsSelect Any Activity or Product at any Level:Create a list of activities and products. Learners select activities from any level.
32 Questions and Statements Stems for Remembering What happened after...?How many...?What is...?Who was it that...?Name the ...?Find the definition of…Describe what happened after…Who spoke to...?Which is true or false...?CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
33 Questions and Statements Stems for Understanding Explain why…Write in your own words…How would you explain…?Develop a brief outline...?What do you think could have happened next...?Who do you think...?What was the main idea...?Can you clarify…?llustrate…?Does everyone act in the way that.. does?CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
34 Questions and Statements Stems for Applying What is another example where…?Group by characteristics such as…?Which factors would you change if…?What questions would you ask of…?From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…?CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
35 Questions and Statements Stems for Analyzing Which events could not have happened?If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?How is...similar to...?What do you see as other possible outcomes?Why did...changes occur?Explain what must have happened when...?What are some or the problems of...?Distinguish between...?What were some of the motives behind..?What was the turning point?What was the problem with...?CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
36 Questions and Statements Stems for Evaluating Which is the better solution to...?Judge the value of... What do you think about...?Defend your position about...?Decide: Is a good or bad thing? What are your reasons?How would you have handled...?What changes to.. would you recommend?How effective are. ..?What are the consequences..?What influence will....have on our lives?What are the pros and cons of....?Why is ....of value?What are the alternatives?Who will gain & who will lose? CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
37 Questions and Statements Stems for Creating Design a...to...?Create a possible solution to...?If you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...?Devise your own way to...?What would happen if ...?How many ways can you...?Create new and unusual uses for...?Develop a proposal which would...?CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
38 First, work learners through lower level questions. Why use these questions?To confirm their knowledge of factual and conceptual knowledgeTo diagnose their strengths and weaknessesTo review and/or summarize knowledge that has been learnedCreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
39 Then, move learners to higher level questions. Why?To help them transform information and gain new meaning and toReflect and think more deeply and criticallyProblem solveExtend their thinking when you present information, teach a concept, or develop a skillSeek information on their own or think creatively.CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
40 Putting it all together in Bloom’s Bakery Click on url. Scroll to bottom for the animation.The layers of the cake represent the levels of learning with each layer representing increasing complexity. All of the levels of the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy come together to form a complete learning experience just as the animation comes together to form a complete cake.
41 See Handout. Refer to Arends text, pp. 115, 421-423 NOW IT’S YOUR TURN Using Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy, plan instructional objectives, questions/statements and activities that cause students to think in different ways.See Handout. Refer to Arends text, pp. 115,
42 Make a Bloom’s Chart for your topic. COGNITIVE PROCESSLEARNING OUTCOMEQUESTIONS STATEMENTSRememberingThe learners will be able toUnderstandingApplyingAnalyzingEvaluatingCreatingSee Handout. Refer to Arends text, pps. 115,
43 Example - Bloom’s Chart Delicious Squid COGNITIVE PROCESSLEARNING OUTCOMEQUESTIONS STATEMENTSRememberingThe learners will be able to remember the structures and functions of a squid.Match the structure with the function.UnderstandingThe learners will be able to explain how a squid defends itself from its predator.How does a squid defend itself from a predator?ApplyingThe learners will be able to demonstrate how a squid moves using the balloon.How can you demonstrate how a squid moves with a balloon?AnalyzingThe learners will be able to compare and contrast a squid an octopus.How is a squid similar and different from an octopus?EvaluatingThe learners will be able to judge which cephalopod is best for the city aquarium.Decide which is best for a city aquarium: Squid, octopus, cuttlefish, or nautilus.CreatingThe learners will be able to create a new species of cephalopod.Create a new species of cephalopod.
44 Responding to Students Wait TimeUsing Positive ReinforcersUsing ProbesAdjusting and Re-focusingRephrasingResponding to Students’ Questions
45 Responding to Students Wait Time Teacher QuestionPause (wait time 1)Student ResponsePause (wait time 2)Teacher ResponseSee Arends, pp
46 Responding to Students Wait Time Wait Time I (wait several seconds)Wait Time II (allow other learners to respond after a learner responds)
47 Responding to Students Using Positive Reinforcers Positively reinforce the student by making positive statements, nodding, smiling, eye contact.Superb! You provided excellent reasons!Wow! You really know your facts!Thanks for sharing your great thinking.
48 Responding to Students Using Probes If a student provides a superficial, incomplete response, use probing questions to cause the student to clarify or extend his/her thinking.Teacher: How does a squid defend itself?Student: A squid uses ink.Teacher: Tell me more. How does a squid use the ink to defend itself.
49 Responding to Students Adjusting or Re-focusing If a student provides a response that is irrelevant or out of context, ask questions or make statements to cause the student to tie the response to the topic.Teacher: What are the squid’s predators?Student: It eats shrimp and fish.Teacher: You’re stating what a squid eats. A predator eats a squid. What are predators that eat a squid?
50 Responding to Students Adjusting or Re-focusing If a student provides a wrong response, don’t dwell on it.Ask other students to add to the response or provide the right response.What other ideas do you (class) have?orDo you agree or disagree? Explain your thinking.
51 Responding to Students Rephrasing If a student provides a wrong response or no response, don’t tell the student he or she is wrong. Reword the question, ask a lower level question, and/or provide additional information to guide the student to the right answer.Teacher: How is a squid well-adapted?Student: No response.Teacher: An adaptation is a change in an organism that allows it to live successfully in its environment. Think about the squid’s body parts. What are the squid’s body parts? How are the body parts help it live successfully in the open ocean?
52 Responding to Students’ Questions Above all, don’t fake it! If a student asks a question and you don’t know the answer, don’t fake it.Propose a plan to answer the question. Work with the student(s) to identify resources to answer the question.How could we answer this question?Volunteer to find the answer yourself.