One of the activities of engineering… Design Development Research Test Analysis Production Sales Technical Support Other Source: Oakes, Leone, and Gunn (2004). Engineering Your Future. Okemos, MI: Great Lakes Press.
Many definitions of design… Design is art. Design as problem solving Design activity as applying scientific and other organized knowledge to practical tasks Design is a social process in which individual object worlds interact, and design parameters are negotiated. Sources: Dr. Robin Adams ENE 696G course notes and Cross, N. (2006).
Crismond (2007) draws from many sources in his definition of design as “’goal-directed problem-solving activity’ (Archer, 1965) that initiates change in human-made things (Jones, 1992), and involves optimizing parameters (Matchett, 1968) and the balancing of trade-offs (AAAS, 2001) to meet targeted users needs (Gregory, 1966).” Source: Crismond, D. (2007). Contrasting strategies of beginning and informed designers: One representation of learning progressions in engineering design.
Nature of Design From Royal College of Art report (1979), recognition of design as a “third culture”: Central concern is ‘the conception and realisation of new things.’ Encompasses the appreciation of ‘material culture’ and the application of ‘the arts of planning, inventing, making and doing.’ At its core is the ‘language’ of ‘modelling’; it is possible to develop students’ aptitudes in the ‘language’, equivalent to aptitudes in the ‘language’ of the sciences (numeracy) and the ‘language’ of humanities (literacy). Design has its own distinct ‘things to know, ways of knowing them, and ways of finding out about them’. Source: Cross, N.(2006). Designerly Ways of Knowing. London: Springer-Verlag. p 1.
Nature of Design SciencesHumanitiesDesign Phenomenon of study The natural world Human experience The artificial world Method of inquiry Controlled experiment, classification, analysis Analogy, metaphor, evaluation Modelling, pattern- formation, synthesis Values Objectivity, rationality, neutrality, and a concern for ‘truth’ Subjectivity, imagination, commitment, and a concern for ‘justice’ Practicality, ingenuity, empathy, and a concern for ‘appropriateness’ Source: Cross, N. (2006). Designerly Ways of Knowing. London: Springer-Verlag.
Designerly Ways of Knowing Five aspects of “designerly ways of knowing”: Designers tackle ‘ill-defined’ problems Their mode of problem-solving is ‘solution- focused.’ Their mode of thinking is ‘constructive’. They use ‘codes’ that translate abstract requirements into concrete objects. They use these codes to both ‘read’ and ‘write’ in ‘object languages’. Source: Cross, N.(2006). Designerly Ways of Knowing. London: Springer-Verlag. p 12.
Design in General Education Justification for design in general education: Design develops innate abilities in solving real-world, ill-defined problems. Design sustains cognitive development in the concrete/iconic modes of cognition. Design offers opportunities for development of a wide range of abilities in nonverbal thought and communication. Source: Cross, N.(2006). Designerly Ways of Knowing. London: Springer-Verlag. p 12.
Different Problem Types Logical StoryDecision-Diagnosis-Design MakingSolution AlgorithmicRule-Trouble-Case UsingshootingAnalysis Well-defined ------------------------------------------ Ill-structured More abstract context ----------------------------- Real-world Single, correct answer ---------------------------- Multiple solutions Information Provided ------------------------------ Many unknowns Source: Jonassen (2000). Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.
Characteristics of Designers Good designers have the ability to: Tolerate ambiguity Maintain sight of the big picture Handle uncertainty Make decisions Source: Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, and Leifer (2005).
Characteristics of Designers Good designers have the ability to: Think as part of a team in a social process Think and communicate in the several languages of design Source: Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, and Leifer (2005).
The Design Process Many formal models for the design process Express different design philosophies Commonality that implies that process represents “design knowledge” EPICS teaches a model that fits our community-based design
The EPICS Design Cycle Disposal Specification Development Detailed Design Production Service Maintenance Redesign Retirement Problem Identification Conceptual Design
Seeking and Selecting Each phase of the design process requires creative solutions and has a divergent component where ideas are sought and a convergent component where options are selected Diverge Seek Possibilities Converge Narrow Choices Problem Identification Specification Development Conceptual Design Converge Narrow Choices Converge Narrow Choices Diverge Seek Possibilities Diverge Seek Possibilities
Individual Differences in Problem Solving Familiarity Domain and Structured Knowledge Cognitive Controls (Cognitive flexibility and complexity) Metacognition Epistemological Beliefs Affective (attitudes and beliefs) and Conative (motivational and volitional) General Problem-Solving Skills Source: Jonassen (2000). Toward a Design Theory of Problem Solving.
Problem-based Learning Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional strategy that promotes active learning. PBL can be used as a framework for modules, courses, programs, or curricula (Samford, 1998). Characteristics Ill-structured, complex problems provide the focal point(s) and stimuli for the course, curriculum and/or program. Learning is student-centered. Faculty act as a coach or facilitator. Students work in small groups to solve/provide multiple solutions to problems Learner assessment is enhanced by self and peer assessment Source: http://www.samford.edu/ctls/pbl_background.html
Problem-based Learning The Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (1996) compared prescriptive and experiential curriculums. Prescriptive CurriculumExperiential Curriculum Teacher-centeredStudent-centered Linear & rationalCoherent & relevant Part to whole organizationWhole to part organization Teaching as transmittingTeaching as facilitating Learning as receivingLearning as constructing Structured environmentFlexible environment Source: http://www.samford.edu/ctls/pbl_background.html
Service-Learning Definition We define service learning as a type of experiential education in which students participate in service in the community and reflect on their involvement in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content and of the discipline and its relationship to social needs and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility. - Hatcher and Bringle, 1997
Two Grand Challenges for Engineering Education What will it take to be an engineer in the 21st century? Who will become an engineer? Solving the problem
The Future of Engineering Education Q1: The world is changing. Will engineering graduates have the attributes and skills they will need for careers that will span the next 40 years?
Drivers for Change New technologies, multidisciplinary technologies Rate of technological change Globalization Workforce issues Declining interest among US students: high school students’ interest down 18% since 1991 Slow progress on diversity Job trends: eng’g students working in other fields Offshoring
Accreditation - ABET The very nature of Service Learning projects provides many opportunities for students to demonstrate that they have achieved ABET Criterion 3 outcomes apply knowledge design/analyze/interpret design system/component/process techniques/skills/tools problem solving professional/ethical responsibility multidisciplinary teams communication societal context contemporary issues life-long learning
Calls to Action National Academy of Engineering Studies: The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century Educating the Engineer of 2020: Adapting Engineering Education to the New Century Rising Above the Gathering Storm Innovate America
Industry - Boeing List A good understanding of engineering science fundamentals. A good understanding of design and manufacturing processes. A multi-disciplinary, systems perspective. A basic understanding of the context in which engineering is practiced. Good communication skills. High ethical standards. An ability to think both critically and creatively - independently and cooperatively. Flexibility. The ability and self-confidence to adapt to rapid or major change. Curiosity and a desire to learn for life. A profound understanding of the importance of teamwork.
Workplace Trends The half-life of an engineer’s knowledge is estimated to be less than five years In 10 years 90% of what an engineer knows will be available on the computer 60% of future jobs will require training that only 20% of the current (U.S.) work force possesses [Workforce 2020 : Work and Workers in the 21st Century]
Attributes of NAE’s Engineer of 2020 Analytical skills Practical ingenuity Creativity Communication & teamwork skills Business & management skills High ethical standards Professionalism Leadership, including bridging public policy and technology Dynamism/agility/resilience/flexibility Lifelong learners
A Grand Challenge for Engineering Education How will we teach / how will they learn all that is needed for 21st century careers? 1990s: Boeing Attributes of an Engineer: critical thinking, systems perspective, … ABET a-k: communication, teamwork, professional/ethical standards, lifelong learning, global/economic/environmental/societal issues, … The Engineer of 2020: ingenuity, creativity, business, leadership, flexibility, … Technical depth and breadth
Real Contexts Compelling Context for Classroom Material Kinematics course (John Duffy, U Mass-Lowell)– analyze playground safety Active exercises to engage students Diversity of learning styles Answers “When would I ever have to use this”
New Context A similar phenomenon occurs when students are able to marshal a body of knowledge to solve problems presented in class but fail even to see a problem, much less the relevance of what has been learned, in a different setting. The new situation does not provide the cues associated with what has been learned; the “key words” from the classroom are not present in the wider environment. A service-learning student will have more ways to access this understanding. – Eyler and Giles
Benefits to Learning Learners of all ages are more motivated when they can see the usefulness of what they are learning and when they can use that information to do something that has an impact on others – especially in their local community – Bransford et al., How People Learn
Teaching Design The Design Process As a Full Cycle Traditional courses use a piece of the design cycle Problem Definition phase is often skipped S-L provides an opportunity for start-to-finish design Problem definition Working designs for fielded projects Support for fielded projects redesign opportunities Design for x-ability Design Process Traditional Course
Entrepreneurship Learn entrepreneurship concepts Innovating to solve compelling problems Spreading the benefits Give it away? Start up company? UniversityThe Community Needs, Ideas Ideas, Products
Integrating the Curriculum problem solving analysis engineering fundamentals science mathematics innovation design resourcefulness ethics teamwork communication C O N T E X T T I M E Service learning has the potential to realize new efficiencies in the curriculum
The Future of Engineering Q2: Both nationally and globally, interest in engineering is changing. Who will become an engineer?
National Trends: Freshmen % of U.S. Freshmen Intending to Major in Engineering by Sex, Race, and Ethnicity
Workforce: Diversity Source: Eng. Workforce Commission/NSF % women % minority Total Enrolled Women and Minorities (US)
Global Trends According to Engineering Trends, six countries produce 60% of the world's engineering bachelor's degrees : China India Japan Russia South Korea Taiwan Bachelor’s and Subbaccalaureate Engineering, CS and IT Degrees Awarded: 2004 (thousands) ** equals Associates degrees in the US, Short-Cycle degrees in China, and three-year diplomas in India Source: Framing the Engineering Outsourcing Debate, Duke University, Dec 2005
Misaligned Messages Career motivators for girls Rewarding Enjoyable Flexible Make a difference, give back to society Profession must be for someone “like me” Messages they hear Have to love math and science Challenging, but if you work hard you can do it
Who will become an engineer? EPICS: 33% of EPICS students are women 20% of Purdue ECE & ME EPICS students are women, compared to 11% of ECE & ME students overall Snapshot: 33% of Purdue CS EPICS students vs. 11.5% in CS overall Engineers Without Borders: Many chapters with 50% women Preliminary data suggests service learning improves retention of women in engineering Service learning has the potential to change the face of engineering
Kolb’s Learning Cycle Service-Learning allows diverse students to contribute and be valued Concrete Experience Abstract Conceptualization Active Experi- mentation Reflective Observation to experience to explain to examine to apply
Public Perceptions of Engineering AAES/Harris Polls, 2003 EngineersScientists Creates economic growth 69%25% Would make a strong leader 56%32% Cares about the community 37%51% Save lives 14%82% Sensitive to societal concerns 28%61% Protects the environment 17%71% Improves the quality of life 22%71%
Designing Curricula Around Engineering Experience Experiential education Co-op and internships Service learning, EPICS Entrepreneurship activities Undergraduate research Study abroad Problem posers as well as problem solvers Science and engineering fundamentals, analysis, and tools in the context of full-cycle design Teamwork, communication, leadership, innovation, resourcefulness, ethics, professionalism, flexibility Efficiencies through integration of the curriculum Design Process Traditional Course
Educating Citizens Engineering’s responsibility to educate the “whole person” Educating future professionals Educating future community members Engaged/educated citizens Lifelong impact Career choices Outside interests or activities
Change the message: Because dreams need doing Teach ABET a-k Educate the Engineer of 2020 Change the focus: Engineering makes a difference in the world Change the demographics SERVICE LEARNING
Both local and global communities need access to technical expertise that is normally prohibitively expensive: improved, enhanced, new capabilities Engineering will be central to addressing global grand challenges Universities will be engaged in their communities and in the world Mutual Needs Students need more than theoretical knowledge to succeed: teamwork, communication, customer-awareness, project management, leadership, ethics, professionalism
The Future of Engineering Education: Because Dreams Need Doing