Presentation on theme: "The Romantic Period: 1798–1832 It’s about more than a feeling…!"— Presentation transcript:
1The Romantic Period: 1798–1832It’s about more than a feeling…!
2The Romantic Period: 1798–1832 Literary Highlights Romanticism arises as a response to social and economic changes caused by the Industrial Revolution.Wordsworth and Coleridge publish Lyrical Ballads in Thus starting the Romantic Era.Keats, Byron, and Shelley write their greatest poems in the early nineteenth century.
3Key Concept: Revolution Spreads Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other PoemsIncluded both Coleridge’s long narrative The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Wordsworth’s “Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey.”Both poems are now among the most important poems in English literature.Represented “a new kind of poetry”—spontaneous, emotional, self-revealing poems written in simple language about commonplace subjects.
4Key Concept: Conservatives Clamp Down Literature of the TimesThe Romantic poetswere dedicated to political and social changebelieved in the power of literaturethought imagination—not reason—was the best response to forces of changecreated private, spontaneous lyric poetry
5Key Concept: Conservatives Clamp Down Some Romantic PoetsBut to the eyes of the man of imagination nature is imagination itself. As a man is, so he sees To me this world is all one continued vision of fancy or imagination.—William BlakeWilliam BlakeGeorge Gordon, Lord ByronJohn KeatsPercy Bysshe Shelley
6Key Concept: Conservatives Clamp Down Literature of the TimesRomantic literature was dominated by poetry.Romantics thought poets were extraordinary people, necessary to humanity and society.Keats called poets “physicians,” Blake called them teachers, and Shelley thought they were the “unacknowledged legislators of the world.”The novel also thrived, however. Key novelists included Jane Austen, Maria Edgeworth, and Sir Walter Scott.
7Key Concept: Comprehension Check What new values and responses to change did the Romantic poets offer?[End of Section]7
8Key Concept: Industrialization Finds a Foothold History of the TimesEngland is the first nation to experience the effects of the Industrial Revolution.Swelling urban populations create desperate living conditions.The era’s misery and poverty are justified by an economic policy called laissez faire.
9Key Concept: Industrialization Finds a Foothold Industrial RevolutionProduction moves from homes to factories in the cities.Machines work many times faster than human beings.Communal land is taken over by individuals.Landless poor migrate to cities for work.
10Key Concept: Comprehension Check How did Gothic literature provide readers and writers in the Romantic period a new way to deal with the political and social upheavals around them?[End of Section]10
11The Romantic Period: 1798–1832 Introduction to the Literary Period Your TurnCompose a brief description of Romantic writing.Consider using the following words in your description.literary device spontaneous inherent emotion overflowform and/or function[End of Section]11
12Themes of Romantic Poetry Influences on Romantic PoetrySpread of democratic ideals through the American and French Revolutions and disillusionment after failure of French RevolutionReactions against harsh living and working conditions created for urban poor by the Industrial RevolutionFascination with nature and country life, which seemed a blissful retreat from city slums
13Themes of Romantic Poetry A New Focus in PoetryInvited readers to feel power and passionTried to capture personal experienceRomantic PeriodRestoration EraOrder had just been restored.Society needed social change.Poets celebrated order, hierarchy, and enlightened rule.Poets wrote about personal feelings, supported individual rights, and used everyday language.
14Themes of Romantic Poetry A New Focus in PoetryRomantic comes from the word romance.A medieval romance is a tale of high adventure that idealizes knightly virtues and has supernatural elements.Romantic writers used elements of romance to go beyond Restoration Era formality and explore psychological and mysterious aspects of human experience.
15Themes of Romantic Poetry A New Focus in PoetryRomantic poetsembraced imagination and naturalness instead of reason and artificewrote about personal experiences and emotions, often using simple languagesaw nature as transformative; focused on the ways nature and the human mind mirrored each other’s creative propertiesPercy Bysshe Shelley
16Themes of Romantic Poetry Imagination: The Inspired GuideMany say the Romantic movement began in 1798 when Wordsworth and Coleridge published Lyrical Ballads.The Romantics are often considered nature poets.However, they are really “mind poets” who sought to understand the bond between humans and the world of the senses.
17Themes of Romantic Poetry Imagination: The Inspired GuideThe Romantics saw imagination as the link between mind and nature.To them, imaginative experi- ences were especially moving, perhaps superior to human reasoning.The mysterious forces of Nature inspired them.All six of the major Romantic poets had their own ideas about imagination, but all believed that it could be stimulated by nature and the mind.
18Themes of Romantic Poetry Nature: The Wise TeacherIf imagination is the Romantic poet’s guide to truth, Nature is the wise teacher that can deliver the lesson.Romantic poets considered themselves especially sensitive.They wanted to help people see the world in all its beauty, sadness, and tenderness.
19Themes of Romantic Poetry Nature: The Wise TeacherFor the Romantic poets, nature was a balm to soothe the relentless hounding of an industrialized world.The poets had a strong sense of nature’s transformative properties.Poets tried to translate scenes of natural beauty into words so that readers might know the power of natural forces to shape thought and feeling.
20Themes of Romantic Poetry Nature: The Wise TeacherThe Romantics’ interest in natural images and themes was reflected in Gothic literature.Novels such as Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein appealed to the imagination throughEerie settingsSupernatural eventsQuestions about humans’ ability to manipulate nature
21Themes of Romantic Poetry Experience: The Worthy SubjectRomantic poets favored idealized rural settings.However, some celebrated the people who lived in crowded cities.They promoted rights toHealthful living conditionsRelief from political or economic oppressionSelf-expression
22Themes of Romantic Poetry Experience: The Worthy SubjectSome Romantics dreamed that poetry could offer an example of model behavior to improve horrific social conditions:Undemocratic governmentsDangerous factoriesChild workers in coal mineChild laborLaissez-faire economic policies that left businesses unregulated
23Themes of Romantic Poetry EMOTIONSRULEFaith in Senses and FeelingsBecause the Romantic poetry valued individual experience, the rationalism previously admired was replaced by a trust in one’s emotions. The literature in England prior to this movement was witty, intellectual, and social. Romanticism rejects the social ‘us’ and embraces the ‘me’! Intuitions, feelings, and emotions ruled. Man’s heart was a more valued guide than his head. So, another characteristic of Romantic poetry is this enlightenment by emotion.
24Themes of Romantic Poetry Belief in the SupernaturalAnother characteristic of Romantic literature is the inclusion of supernatural elements.Perhaps, for the Romantics, Nature was so powerful that it could not be contained. Nature takes on a mysterious, sometimes even scary quality in literature of the Romantics. Supernatural elements play a large part in these works.SupernaturalNatural
25Themes of Romantic Poetry Use of simple languageSimple LanguageThe Romantics searched for personal experiences and strove to communicate their power in meaningful ways. To achieve this, the Romantic writers employed simple and direct language. This was another way to reject the Neoclassical movement that hoped to emulate the ancient writers in lofty styles and language. Think of it this way… our most personal conversations, our most private, do not need elevated language to impress or ring true. This simple language is another Romantic characteristic.
26Themes of Romantic Poetry Ask Yourself1. Where did Romantic poets look for inspiration? Why?2. Why do you think Romantic poets wrote about nature during a time of change?[End of Section]
27Forms of Romantic Poetry Characteristics of Romantic PoetryExpresses the emotions and concerns of an individual as well as of societyVaries the structure of traditional forms to suit a poem’s purposeFocuses on a poet’s personal connection to nature
28Forms of Romantic Poetry Function over FormThe Romantics took poetry in a new direction.Romantic Poets18th Century PoetsPoetry was a strictly defined literary genre.Poetry was a playground of feelings.Poets experimented with forms and expressed feelings in natural language.Poets used formal language and structured traditional forms such as odes and sonnets.Function seems more important than form.Form seems more important than function.
29Forms of Romantic Poetry Ask Yourself1. What was more important to Romantic poets, form or function? Why?2. What topics did Romantic poets pursue? Why?[End of Section]
30Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems Early Romantic PoetsWilliam WordsworthLyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems“Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern AbbeySamuel Taylor ColeridgeThe Rime of the Ancient MarinerKubla Khan
31Read Assigned Poems and Prepare for Literature Group )