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1 Learning – styles and strategies Lars Peter Jensen and Xiangyun Du.

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1 1 Learning – styles and strategies Lars Peter Jensen and Xiangyun Du

2 2 Agenda Reflection on learning through exercises Learning styles Learning portfolio

3 3 Exercise 1: 3 minutes’ individual thinking Wishful thinking - One thing you want to be good at Braining writing - Thinking about a person you know who is good at this thing – why and how – list a few words

4 4 Group work (20 minutes) Reverse brainstorming in groups –Share your thoughts with each other –Tell each other what you should DO in order NOT to improve your skills in doing this thing you wish to be good at Individual reflection – what have you learned in order to realize your wish?

5 5 Learning – is it only about how brain works?

6 6 Experiential learning - Kolb’s learning cycle Test Generalisation/ conceptualisation Reflection Experience Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experiences - David Kolb Learning is a function of the activity, context, and culture in which it normally occurs, thus it is situated - Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger

7 7 Experiential learning – the Cowan loopy diagram Reflectionfor in onaction Time P0-proces analysis P0-project start ”P1-midway seminar” P1-process analysis Eksperimental, testing Consolidating, verifying Next project

8 8 Everyday reflections – an enhanced Cowan loopy diagram Planned and joint ’grand’ reflections Incidential and personal ’small’ reflections Reflection Time

9 9 Meta-learning WHAT? Learning about learning WHY? Deeper, more lasting learning HOW? Via reflection on own learning process WHO? You, individually and in the group WHERE? In the POPBL-course and in other learning situations WHEN? When there is a need to improve learning processes

10 10 Learning and meta-learning - the Pask model Genera- lisation TestReflection Experi- ence Experiential learning = ’to find the way out of the maze’ by: Gain experience by trying Reflect on the result Generalise Test generalisation by new trials

11 11 Learning and meta-learning - the Pask model Meta-læring = become better in ’finding the way out’ by having my ’observing self’ climb up and: Observe my ’learning self’ in the maze, Reflect on learning processes, i.e. my attempts to ’find the way out’ Generalise learning processes, Test new methods of learning. Genera- lisation TestReflection Experi- ence Genera- lisation TestReflection Experi- ence

12 12 Learning styles Individuals’ different ways of taking in and processing information - Richard Felder

13 13 Different learning styles 1 Visual Learners Remember best what they see - ‘Show me’ Pictures Diagrams Sketches schematics Flow charts plots Verbal learners Getting more out of words - ‘Explain it to me’ Spoken words Written words Everybody is both visual and verbal. Preferring one does not mean that you don’t learn in the other way. Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild.

14 14 Different learning style 1: Input modality VisualVerbal Score119753113579 Electronic 200391071365421000 E7-Intro 2007122344011000 Preferencestrongmoderatewell balancedmoderatestrong Electronic 2003 Percent EE 19 33 % 20 35 % 17 30 % 1 2 % 0 E7-Intro 2007 Percent 7-Intro 3 17 % 5 28 % 9 50 % 1 6 % 0

15 15 Different learning styles 2 Sensing Learners Tend to like facts Like solving problems by well- established methods and dislike complications and surprises Be patient with details and good at memorizing facts and doing hands-on work More practical and careful don’t like courses that have no apparent connection to the real world Intuitive Learners Prefer discovering possibilities and relationships Like innovation and dislike repetition Be better at grasping new concepts and more comfortable with abstractions and mathematical formulations Work faster and more imaginative Don’t like courses that involve a lot of memorization and routine calculation Everybody is sometimes sensing and sometimes intuitive. Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild.

16 16 Different learning style 2: Perception SensingIntuitive Score119753113579 Electronic 200324813105433311 E7-Intro 2007025332120000 Preferencestrongmoderatewell balancedmoderatestrong Electronic 2003 Percent EE 6 11 % 21 37 % 22 39 % 6 10 % 2 3 % E7-Intro 2007 Procent 7-Intro 2 11 % 8 44 % 8 44 % 00

17 17 Different learning styles 3 Active Learners Retain and understand information best by doing something active Like discussion or applying it or explaining it to others ‘let’s try it out and see how it works’ Like group work Reflective Learners Think about it quietly before talk Let’s think it through first Prefer working alone quietly Everybody is sometimes active and sometimes reflective. Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. It is hard for both learning types sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but taking notes, particularly hard for active learners.

18 18 Different learning style 3: Processing ActiveReflective Score119753113579 Electronic 20033661079743110 E7-Intro 2007021325211010 Preferencestrongmoderatewell balancedmoderatestrong Electronic 2003 Percent EE 9 16 % 16 28 % 27 47 % 4 7 % 1 2 % E7-Intro 2007 Procent 7-Intro 2 11 % 4 22 % 10 55 % 1 6 % 1 6 %

19 19 Different learning styles 4 Sequential Learners Gain understanding in linear steps Follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions Feel comfortable explaining things Global Learners Learning in large jumps, absorbing materials almost randomly without seeing connections, and suddenly ‘get it’. Need big picture to function Solve complex problems quickly or put things together in novel ways once they have grasped the big picture Feel difficult to explain Which is your preference? Your preference for one category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild.

20 20 Different learning style 4: Understanding SequentialGlobal Score119753113579 Electronic 20030026699126340 E7-Intro 2007002233521000 Preferencestrongmoderatewell balancedmoderatestrong Electronic 2003 Percent EE 0 0 % 8 14 % 36 63 % 9 16 % 4 7 % E7-Intro 2007 Percent 7-Intro 04 22 % 13 72 % 1 6 % 0

21 21 Exercise 2 (20 minutes) Post-it exercise Brainstorming - Write down whatever possible strategies for this question: What makes efficient learning? Write one on each post-it When you are out of ideas, categorize them and put them into the chart

22 22 Not highly efficient learning for the group Not highly efficient for individual Highly efficient for individual Highly efficient learning for the group

23 23 Highly efficient learning for the group Not highly efficient learning for the group Highly efficient for individual Not highly efficient for individual 2 4 1 2 4 5 5 1 3 25 16 4 1

24 24 Results of your discussions High scoring methods Planning (16) Relating theory to practice (25) Subgroup teaching others (25) Problem based 25 Illustration 25 Time pressure 20 Discussion 20 Using facilities and equipment 25 Preparation before handing in 20 Learning by doing 25 Getting supervision 25 Peer teaching 20 Low scoring methods Google 4 Discussion (not efficient for individual) Taking notes in a lecture 9 Memorizing (repeating) 1 No exams – only beers 1 Learning by beating –physical punishment 1 Individual reading 5 Competition 5 Assignment 3 Only sitting still 1 Lectures 8 Individual learning 2 (readinig by oneself, etc.) Doing part of the task without knowing the rest 4


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