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Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References.

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Presentation on theme: "Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References."— Presentation transcript:

1 Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References

2 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Objectives Identify adverbs and the words they modify. Differentiate between the use of adjectives and adverbs. Recognize the importance of the placement of adverbs. Form the comparative and superlative degrees of regular and irregular adverbs. PP 13-1a continued

3 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Objectives PP 13-1b continued Recognize and correct double negatives and other incorrect uses of negative words. Use special adverbs correctly.

4 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverb PP 13-2 An adverb answers these questions: How? In what manner? patiently, boldly, slowly, softly, enthusiastically When? recently, later, finally, daily, again, formerly Where? outside, here, down, forward, up, away To what extent? To what degree? extremely, very, too, rarely, completely, frequently

5 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverbs—Modify Verbs PP 13-3 Place the adverb before or after the verb that is modified. When businesses knowingly deceive customers, they are violating ethical standards. Do not illegally copy paper or electronic documents.

6 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverbs—Modify Adjectives PP 13-4 Place the adverb immediately before the adjective. The courtesy of greeting others within your own firm is universally acceptable in the United States. In some countries, greetings are very expressive and elaborate. Downsizing is becoming an increasingly popular way for businesses to lower expenses.

7 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverbs—Modify Other Adverbs PP 13-5 Place the adverb immediately before the adverb being modified. We very precisely judged the commute time to our new client’s office. Ruby did extremely well on the ethics section of her real estate exam.

8 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Descriptive Adjectives Before Nouns PP 13-6 Add ly to an adjective root to form the majority of adverbs. cautiouscautiously extremeextremely perfectperfectly skillfulskillfully AdjectiveAdverb

9 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Noun Base Used to Form Adjectives Ending in ly PP 13-7 Use root words to identify words ending in ly as adjectives or adverbs. brotherbrotherly neighborneighborly earthearthly worldworldly lovelovely NounAdjective

10 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverbs Formed From Adjectives Ending in y PP 13-8 Change the y to i and add ly to an adjective ending in y to form an adverb. busybusily easyeasily heavyheavily merrymerrily AdjectiveAdverb

11 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverbs Formed From Adjectives Ending in ible or able PP 13-9 Drop the final e on adjectives that end in able or ible before adding the y to form the adverb. forcibleforcibly terribleterribly possiblepossibly AdjectiveAdverb

12 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverbs Formed From Adjectives Ending in ic PP 13-10 Add ally to adjectives ending in ic to form the adverb. chronicchronically logiclogically magicmagically scenicscenically AdjectiveAdverb

13 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverbs—Modify Adjectives PP 13-11 The following list includes some adverbs that do not end in ly. againmoresometimes almostmuchsoon alwaysnearthen downnowthere farnowheretoo fastoftentwice hardonceup

14 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Do Not Hyphenate Adverbs Ending in ly PP 13-12 Examples a carelessly written memo a richly deserved award an internationally recognized sign a highly successful business

15 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Verbs—Action Versus Linking PP 13-13 Use an adverb to modify action verbs. Tucker intentionally withheld confidential information. The employee thoughtlessly made an inappropriate comment to Julie. Use an adjective, not an adverb, after a linking verb to describe the subject. The manager felt bad about the dependence on temporary workers. Karen seems distraught over the missing computer disk.

16 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Verbs—Both Linking and Action PP 13-14 Clarify the intent of the sentence before making a decision about such verbs as look, taste, or feel. Use adverbs when these words are action words. He hurriedly looked for the contract on his desk. Use adjectives when these words function as linking verbs. Things looked bad for Jerome after he lost his job.

17 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adjectives and Adverbs With the Same Form PP 13-15 Some adverbs and adjectives that have the same form include fast, first, last, early, and right. Use an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun. Turn left at the first stop sign. Use an adverb to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Return Andrew’s phone call first.

18 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH One-Syllable Adverbs PP 13-16 Add er to the positive form for its comparative degree. Add est to the positive form for its superlative degree. PositiveComparativeSuperlative fastfasterfastest latelaterlatest soonsoonersoonest

19 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Two-Syllable Adverbs PP 13-17 Add er or the word more or the word less before the positive form for the comparative degree. Add est or the word most or the word least for the superlative degree. PositiveComparativeSuperlative quicklymore quickly (quicker)most quickly (quickest) nearlymore nearlymost nearly

20 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Three-Syllable Adverbs PP 13-18 Add the word more or the word less before the positive form to form its comparative degree. Add the word most or the word least before the positive form to form its superlative degree. PositiveComparativeSuperlative efficientlymore efficientlymost efficiently dangerouslymore dangerouslymost dangerously Reliablymore reliablymost reliably

21 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Irregular Adverbs PP 13-19 Use irregular comparisons for some adverbs. PositiveComparativeSuperlative wellbetterbest badlyworseworst

22 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Absolute Adverbs PP 13-20 Some adverbs do not allow for comparisons nonowpastbasically thereherepartlysometimes tooveryannually We feel that we need more telephone lines now. Ethics concerns today are similar to those in the past.

23 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Cautions for Using Not and Never PP 13-21 Use not in a negative statement. Place not between the helping verb and the main verb in a sentence. Some employees do not treat all customers with respect. Use never as a stronger word than not to mean “at no time.” Being rude to a customer is never acceptable. Refrain from using never if not will suffice.

24 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Cautions for Using Contractions PP 13-22 Use an apostrophe to take the place of the missing letter or letters in such words as aren’tdoesn’tcan’tisn’t wouldn’thasn’tdon’t He doesn’t anticipate rewriting the code of ethics for several years. She hasn’t missed a day of work this year.

25 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Double Negatives PP 13-23a Double negatives are two negative words used in a sentence. This combination gives the clause a positive meaning rather than the intended negative meaning. I have not seen no evidence of employee theft. Incorrect I have seen no evidence of employee theft. I have not seen any evidence of employee theft. Correct

26 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Double Negatives PP 13-23b I couldn’t hardly believe that the computer was missing. Incorrect I could hardly believe that the computer was missing. I could not believe that the computer was missing. Correctcontinued I can’t go nowhere until I help these customers. Incorrect I can go nowhere until I help these customers. I cannot go anywhere until I help these customers. Correct

27 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Placement of Only PP 13-24 Place the adverb only immediately before the word or group of words it modifies. Only long-time employees can take vacations during June. Long-time employees can take vacations only during June.

28 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverb Clauses PP 13-25a Use subordinating conjunctions such as after, although, before, because, if, unless, when, and while to introduce dependent adverb clauses. Place the adverb clause as closely as possible to the words modified.

29 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Adverb Clauses PP 13-25b Use commas after introductory adverb clauses that precede independent clauses. continued Although he broke no laws, his actions were still unethical. Do not use commas to set aside adverb clauses that follow independent clauses. Plan to arrive 10 minutes before the meeting begins. We will start the meeting after serving refreshments.

30 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Farther/Further (Adverbs) PP 13-26 Use farther to refer to physical distance. We traveled farther from the airport than we anticipated to find our hotel. Use further to mean additional or additionally. He explained further the reasons for adjusting our work schedules.

31 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Good/Well PP 13-27 Use good as an adjective. Making ethical choices is often more than being a good person. Use well as an adverb. The new code of ethics has worked very well during the past year. Use well as an adjective in reference to the state of someone’s health. Although Anna was not well, she stayed at work long enough to complete writing the payroll checks.

32 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Most/Almost PP 13-28 Use almost as an adverb to mean “nearly.” Use almost if the word nearly can be substituted satisfactorily. Almost all of us use our yearly vacation time. Use most as a limiting adjective to modify a noun. Most new supervisors have trouble with ethical situations. Use most as the superlative degree in a comparison. The speaker answered the question most effectively.

33 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Real/Really PP 13-29a Use real as a descriptive adjective to mean “genuine.” Do not use real to modify another adjective. We never knew the real reason for losing the Manila contract.

34 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Real/Really PP 13-29b Use really as an adverb to mean “genuinely.” Substitute very for the word really to determine if really is the correct word. Cynthia is really supportive of our efforts to improve customer satisfaction. continued

35 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Sometime/Sometimes/Some Time PP 13-30a Use sometime as an adverb to mean “at some unscheduled time” or “in the future.” Sometime next week we are meeting to revise our customer service policy. Use sometimes as an adverb to mean “on some occasions.” We sometimes waive late payment charges.

36 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Sometime/Sometimes/ Some Time PP 13-30b Use some time as a phrase in which the adjective some modifies the noun time. Some time designates an “amount of time.” The revision of the ethics policy will take some time. continued

37 Business English at Work Adverbs Advanced English Structures; Lectured by CHUM PISETH Sure/Surely PP 13-31 Use sure as an adjective. They thought a lock on the supply cabinet was the sure solution for reducing theft. Use surely as an adverb to mean “without a doubt.” Ellen surely makes an excellent impression on customers.

38 Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill References End of


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