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The Solar System Click Here to go to the Solar room By Martin Gentile 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "The Solar System Click Here to go to the Solar room By Martin Gentile 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Solar System Click Here to go to the Solar room By Martin Gentile 2002

2 Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Comparison Sun Moon  Solar Room

3 The Sun The Sun, unlike the planets, is not connected to any God. The Sun is a normal G - type star. The Sun is currently heading towards Vega, a B - type star. The way the Sun began, was from an ancient star, which exploded over 5 billion (5,000,000,000) years ago. The nebula which remained, collapsed into a hot ball, millions of miles across. It began to shine. It was then called a “Protostar.” When the nuclear fission began, it became known as our star. The Sun takes 27.3 days to rotate on its axis and has a surface gravity of 28 Earths. The surface temperature is usually 6000°C. Its symbol represents gold. (Au). Solar room

4 Mercury Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and therefore has a year of just 88 days, which is all it takes to orbit the Sun. Mercury has no atmosphere or satellites, but the Mariner 10 probe identified a heavily cratered surface. Due to its closeness to the Sun, Mercury can’t be easily observed from earth, except for when it passes in front of the Sun and your next chance to see this happening is for 5 hours on the 7th May, 2003! The temperature in the day is hotter than the hottest desert and in the night, colder than Antarctica. Its symbol represents mercury. Solar room

5 Venus Venus, the Roman Goddess of love and peace, was supposed to be gentle and kind. The real Venus, is far from this! Clouds cover Venus all the time, so no one knew what was under the clouds until Venera (CCCP) reached the surface. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) rained from the sky, and the air pressure is like being underwater, 100 metres down! The climate is like the greenhouse effect gone wild. So much so, that the temperature would melt lead! So Venus has the reputation of being the “Hell Planet”. Its symbol represents copper (Cu) in alchemy. Solar room

6 The Moon The Moon is the Earth’s only natural satellite. It revolves around the Earth roughly once every month. It has no atmosphere except a thin layer of helium gas. It is about 250,000 miles from Earth and is 2,160 miles in diameter. There have been six manned landings on the Moon: Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17, each carrying three people to the Moon, but only two people disembarking on the Moon. Apollo 17 was the longest stay on the Moon. Apollo 13 had an explosion in the craft and luckily managed to get back to Earth. The Moon’s symbol represents silver. (Ag). Solar room

7 Mars Mars, the God of war, gets it’s name from the blood red colour of the soil. Its symbol represents iron. It is the fourth planet from the Sun, getting only half the sunlight as Earth and it takes about two years to orbit the Sun and is about half the size of Earth. The red colour comes from the high composition of iron (Fe) in the soil. Only four probes have successfully made landings on Mars: Mars 3, (1971, CCCP) Vikings 1 and 2 (1976, USA) and Pathfinder (1997, USA). Mars has captured the imagination of people for years. One of the more famous stories was “The War Of The Worlds” broadcast on radio, by Orson Welles, on 30 October 1938. He presented the broadcast as a music programme, interrupted by “news flashes”. This caused some people to panic. Solar room

8 Jupiter Jupiter, king of the gods, is distinct by the raging storm, or “Red Spot”, three times the size of Earth. Five probes have visited Jupiter: Pioneers 10 and 11, Voyagers 1 and 2 and also Galileo. Most of the information that we have of Jupiter comes from the Voyager probes. For instance, we now know of sixteen moons, the smallest, Ledas, being just five miles across. The biggest set of moons are the Galileans: Ganymede, Callisto, Io and Europa. We also know of a ring around Jupiter, after the Voyager missions. Its symbol represents tin. Solar room

9 Saturn Saturn, the God of old age, orbits the Sun once every twenty nine years. It’s size is deceiving; it has the gravity of 1.2 Earths. If there was an ocean big enough, Saturn would float in it! It too, like Jupiter, has storms, but not nearly as violent and the cloud tops appear smooth. Two probes have visited Saturn: Voyagers 1 and 2. Cassini Huygens will be there in the year 2004. These probes photographed the rings and sent back stunning pictures of the lumps of rock ranging from the size of a car to the size of a grain of sand. Its symbol represents lead (Pb). Solar room

10 Uranus Uranus, the God of heaven was the first planet not to be discovered by the ancient people of Earth. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1781. It is mainly composed of methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH4). It has the density of 1.3 of water and spins “On its side” at 89°. Because of this, it was once thought to be on a collision course with Earth. Uranus has a ring system composed of very dark material. It was visited just once - by Voyager 2 (again) in 1986. It was discovered to have clouds and brought the total of known moons up to fifteen form four. Solar room

11 Neptune  Neptune, the God of the sea, was discovered mathematically in 1801. Neptune is very much like Uranus but a little smaller. (Four times the size of Earth.) It too has a few small rings, but too faint to be seen from Earth. Neptune’s composition is virtually the same as Uranus’s: Water, ammonia and methane. Most of the knowledge we have also comes from Voyager 2, which flew past Neptune in 1989. Voyager also found a great dark spot, the size of Earth, with winds going up to 300 mph or more. Voyager also discovered six moons, bringing the total of known moons up to eight. Solar room

12 Pluto Pluto, God of the under world, was the only planet to be discovered by an American, in February 1930. It takes about 248 years to orbit the Sun and is mainly composed of frozen methane and water. In the summer, where it gets closer to the Sun, it has a thin atmosphere of methane. Its diameter is roughly 1375 miles across and as recently as 1978, a tiny moon, Charon (The boatman to the underworld) was discovered when they found that Pluto was wobbling too much. Charon is about half the size of Pluto. Pluto hasn’t been visited by any spacecraft, which would take ten years to get there. Solar room

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