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ESL 126 Unit 8. P 331 Ex 1 1. Many immigrants camebecause/sincethey didn’t have enough to eat. 2. Many immigrants cameso (that)they could feed their families.

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Presentation on theme: "ESL 126 Unit 8. P 331 Ex 1 1. Many immigrants camebecause/sincethey didn’t have enough to eat. 2. Many immigrants cameso (that)they could feed their families."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESL 126 Unit 8

2 P 331 Ex 1 1. Many immigrants camebecause/sincethey didn’t have enough to eat. 2. Many immigrants cameso (that)they could feed their families. 3. Many immigrants cameso (that)they could escape religious persecution. 4. Many immigrants camebecause/sincethe political situation was unstable in their countries.

3 5. Many immigrants camebecause ofthe poor economy in their country. 6. Many immigrants came(in order) tobe reunited with their relatives. 7.Because/sincewar destroyed many of their homes and towns, many people had to leave their countries. 8. Many immigrants came(in order) toescape poverty. 9. Many immigrants cameforfreedom.

4 10. Often immigrants comeso (that)they can make more money. 11. Often immigrants come(in order) tomake more money. 12. Often immigrants comebecause/sincethey see a better future for their children in the U.S. 13. Most immigrants come to the U.S.fora better life.

5 P 332/333 Ex 3 A: I heard you moved. B: Yes. We moved last month. We bought a big houseso (that) we would have room for my parents. They’re coming to the U.S. next monthbecause/sincethey want to be near their children and grandchildren. A: Don’t you mind having your parents live with you? B: Not at all. It’ll be good for them and good for us.Because of our jobs, we don’t get home until after 6 p.m. A: Aren’t your parents going to work?

6 B: No. They’re not coming herefor/because ofjobs. They’re in their late 60s and are both retired. They just want to be grandparents. A: It’s great for kids to be near their grandparents. B: I agree. Grandparents are the best babysitters. We want the kids to stay with their grandparentsso(that)they won’t forget our language. Also, we want them to learn about our native culturebecause/sincethey have never been to our country. Our son, who’s five, is already starting to speak more English than Spanish. He prefers Englishbecause/since all his friends in kindergarten speak English.

7 A: That’s how kids are in America. They don’t want to speak their native languagebecause/sincethey want to be just like their friends. Do your parents speak English? B: Just a little. What about your parents? Where do they live? A: They live a few blocks away from me. B: That’s great! You can see them any time. A: Yes, but we almost never see each otherbecause/since we don’t have time.Because/sincethey work in the day and I work in the evening, it’s hard for us to get together.

8 P 335 Ex 4 1. The lost boys walked for many months. 2. During their march to Ethiopia, many of them died. 3. They lived in Ethiopia for about four years. 4. They crossed the river during the rainy season. 5. Some died while they were marching to Ethiopia. 6. They studied English while they were living in Kenya. 7. They had very little to eat before/until they came to the U.S.

9 8. While they were traveling to the U.S., they were wondering about their future. 9. They had never seen a gas stove before/until they came to the U.S. 10. When they came to the U.S., they saw modern appliances for the first time. 11. Some of them have not heard anything about their families since they left Sudan. 12. Since they came to the U.S., they have been studying English. 13. In the U.S. many of them work while they are going to school. 14. When/Whenever they think about their families and their homeland, they feel sad.

10 P 336 Ex 5 When I was a child, I heard many stories about life in America. When/WheneverI saw American movies, I imagined that one day I would be in a place like the one I saw. My uncle had lived in the U.S.formany years, and he often came back to visit. When/Wheneverhe came back, he used to tell me stories and show me pictures of the U.S.WhenI was a teenager, I asked my mother if she would let me visit my uncleduring my summer vacation, but she said I was too young and the trip was too expensive.

11 WhenI was 20, I finally decided to come to the U.S.While/as I was traveling to the U.S., I thought about all the stories my uncle had told me. But I really knew nothing about the U.S. before/untilI came here. SinceI came to the U.S., I’ve been working hard and trying to learn English. I haven’t had time to meet Americans or have much funsinceI started my job. I’ve been hereforfive months now, and I just work and go to school.

12 When/WheneverI’m at school, I talk to classmatesduring our break, but on the weekends I’m alone most of the time. I won’t be able to make American friendsuntilI learn more English. The American movies I had seen showed me beautiful places, but I never imagined how much I would miss my family and friends.

13 P 338/339 Ex 8 1. The Lost Boys went to Kenya before coming to the U.S. 2. While living in Kenya, they studied English. 3. Before coming to the U.S., the Lost Boys had never used electricity. 4. John Bul learned how to use a computer after coming to the U.S. 5. Until finding a job, John got help from the U.S. government. 6. John wants to go back to Sudan after graduating from college.

14 8. 5 EVEN THOUGH/ALTHOUGH Even though he was hungry, he didn’t have any lunch. He didn’t have any lunch even though he was hungry. Although she wasn’t feeling well, she went to work. She went to work although she wasn’t feeling well. Even though it was freezing outside, Fred wasn’t wearing a coat. Fred wasn’t wearing a coat even though it was freezing outside.

15 P 341 Ex 10 1. In spite of the fact that slavery ended in 1865, African-Americans did not receive equal treatment under the law. 2. The slave population continued to grow in spite of the fact that Americans stopped importing slaves from Africa. 3. Many immigrants come to America in spite of the difficulty of starting a new life. 4. The Lost Boys of Sudan have not lost their hopes for a bright future in spite of the difficulties they face.

16 5. In spite of their busy work schedules, the Lost Boys of Sudan go to school. 6. In spite of the fact that everything in America is new for them, the Lost Boys of Sudan are adapting to American life. 7. In spite of the fact that life is not perfect in the U.S., many immigrants want to come here.

17 8.6 Conditions IF- clauses  Can be used to talk about a possible result in the future.  If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella.  If she finishes her work early, she’ll go to the mall.  In these situations, the result is a real possibility. The action could happen.  Present tense is used in the adverb clause, a future tense is used in the main clause.

18 She always eats lunch even if she isn’t hungry. They get up at 5 am even if they don’t have to go to work. He’ll leave at 5:30 even if he hasn’t finished his work. Even if she isn’t hungry, she always eats lunch. Even if they don’t have to go to work, they get up at 5 am. Even if he hasn’t finished his work, he’ll leave at 5:30. EVEN IF – expresses the idea that a particular condition doesn’t matter, the result will not change.

19 Conditions - Unless  Means: if…not  I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold.  I’ll go swimming tomorrow if it isn’t cold.  You can’t gamble in Las Vegas unless you are over 21.  You can’t gamble in Las Vegas if you aren’t over 21.  You’ll miss the bus unless you leave now.  You’ll miss the bus if you don’t leave now.

20 P 344/345 Ex 13 1.If the U.S. adds almost 80 million people to the population in the next, it will have to build 30 million more housing units. 2. Even if the number of immigrants goes down, the population will increase. 3. If more children are born in the next 50 years, more schools will be needed. 4. The class size will increase if the number of school-age children grows.

21 5. The U.S. population will be over 400 million by 2050 if immigration continues at the same rate. 6. Immigrants will continue to come to the U.S. unless there is a change in immigration policy. 7. Children of immigrants will forget their native language unless their parents encourage them to speak it.

22 P 345 Ex 14 1. You can’t enter the U.S. unless you have a passport. 2. Children of immigrants will forget their language unless they use it. 3. Immigrants will continue to the U.S. unless conditions in their native countries improve. 4. An American citizen can’t be president of the U.S. unless he or she was born in the U.S. 5. Unless the Hispanic birth rate changes, Hispanics will be 23 percent of the U.S. population by the middle of the century.

23 P 347 Ex 17 A: I’m planning to go to Boston. I’m worried about the cold weather. What do people do in the winter? Aren’t they afraid of the snow and the cold? B: I’m sure people go out even if the weather is bad. A: What if people don’t understand me? My accent isn’t perfect. B: Even if your accent isn’t perfect, people will probably understand you. A: But I make so many grammar mistakes.

24 B: Don’t worry. People will understand you even if you make mistakes. Are you planning to get a job there? A: I don’t think I’m going to need one. I’m going to live with my relatives, and they said I can live there for free. B: Even if you live with relatives, you’ll need money for other things, like books, clothes, and transportation. A: I know college is going to be expensive for me because I’m going be an international students. I think college is free for American residents, isn’t it? B: No. Even if you are an American, you have to pay for college, but it’s cheaper for residents.

25 P 349/350/351 Ex 18 1.The Lost Boys faced many problems when they left Sudan. They didn’t know where to go. In addition/Furthermore, they didn’t have enough to eat. 2. Some of them couldn’t swim. Therefore/As a result, some drowned when they had to cross a river in their escape. 3. Finally they found safety in a refugee camp in Kenya. However, conditions in the camp were very poor. 4. Many of the Lost Boys had never seen a gas stove before they came to the U.S. Therefore/As a result, they did not understand how to cook at first. 5. They faced problems in the U.S. They had to find jobs quickly. In addition/Furthermore, they had to go to school to improve their English.

26 6. They are happy that they came to the U.S. However/Nevertheless, they still miss their family and friends back home. 7. Many immigrants came to America at the beginning of the twentieth century. However/Nevertheless, immigration slowed down during World War 1. 8. Jews had a hard life in Eastern Europe. Many lived in poor conditions. In addition/Furthermore, they were victims of anti-Semitism. 9. My grandfather immigrated to the U.S. to find a job and make more money. In addition/Furthermore, he wanted to be reunited with his relatives.

27 10. There was a big famine. Therefore/As a result, many Irish people left and came to the U.S. 11. In 1924, Congress passed a law restricting the number of immigrants. Therefore/As a result, many people who wanted to come to the U.S. couldn’t. 12. Many Cubans wanted to escape communism in the 1960s. However, many of them couldn’t get permission to leave Cuba. 13. Many Cubans tried to get permission to leave Cuba legally but couldn’t. However, many people found other ways of leaving. Some built small boats and tried to reach Florida by sea. 14. Between 2000 and 2007, about 6.7 million immigrants arrived in the U.S legally. However/Nevertheless, about 5.6 million illegal aliens arrived during this period of time.

28 15. A war broke out in Yugoslavia in 1992. Therefore/ As a result, many people died or lost their homes. 16. Most immigrants came to the U.S. because they wanted to. However/Nevertheless, Africans were brought to America against their will to work as slaves. 17. In 1778, Thomas Jefferson wrote, “All men are created equal.” However/Nevertheless, Jefferson had 200 slaves at the time he wrote these words. 18. Members of the same family were sent to different areas to work as slaves. Therefore/As a result, African families were torn apart. 19. Slavery officially ended in 1865. However/Nevertheless, many African families continued to suffer.

29 20. African-Americans had been the largest minority for many years. However, this changed in 2003 when the Hispanic population became the largest minority. 21. Adopting a foreign baby is complicated. People have to pay a lot of money. In addition/Furthermore, they have to travel to the foreign country to fill out forms and pick up the baby.

30 P 352/353 Ex 20 Many people have come to America for freedom. But Africans lost their freedom and were brought to America against their will to work in the fields. Africans were taken from their homes and put on slave ships to cross the Atlantic. Because of hard conditions, many died along the way. In spite of the fact that they worked hard from morning till night, they received no money. In fact, they were often beaten if they didn’t obey. They were forced to work hard so that white plantation owners could become rich.

31 Although many people in the North were against slavery, slavery continued in the South since Southern slave owners did not want to give up their cheap labor supply. Even though the law prohibited the importation of slaves, slavery continued to increase. In spite of the difficulties of living under slavery, slaves formed strong communities. They tried to keep their African cultural practices, which included music and dance. Because people from the same regions in Africa were separated from each other, they lost their native languages, used English, and were given biblical names rather than African names.

32 Most of the African-Americans in the North were free. However, they didn’t have an easy life. They couldn’t attend public schools. Furthermore, they weren’t allowed to vote. Many slaves from the South tried to run away to the North. However, some were caught and sent back to their “owners.” Until the slaves were finally freed in 1865, they faced many difficulties. In spite of the fact that the majority of Africans were born in America, they suffered discrimination because of the color of their skin.

33 Discrimination was still legal until 1965 until Congress passed a law prohibiting discrimination in jobs and education. Although there has been progress toward equality for all, there are still many inequalities in American life.

34 8.8 so…that So + adjective or adverb + that The coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it. Cause = Coffee is hot.Effect = I can’t drink it. [adjective] I’m so hungry that I could eat a horse.[adjective] He’s so tall that he can’t get into the car.[adjective] He walked so quickly that I couldn’t keep up with him.[adverb] They’re so tired that they can’t stay awake. She speaks so fast that I can’t understand her.[adverb] They walked so slowly that they missed the bus.[adverb] [adjective] When speaking, “that” can be omitted.

35 Such…that Such + adjective + noun + that It was such nice weather that we went to the zoo. It was such good coffee that I had another cup. They were such good tenants that the landlord gave their deposit back. They were such annoying children that I complained to their mother. It was such a good book that I couldn’t put it down. It was such a sad movie that I couldn’t stop crying. He is such a boring person that people avoid him. It is such a foggy day that I can’t see the road. uncountable nouns/plural nouns/singular nouns

36 So…. + NOUN that – many, few, much, little She made so many mistakes that she failed the exam. He knows so many people that he can’t invite them all to the party. He has so few friends that he is always lonely. They invited so few people that the party was really boring. She has so much money that she can buy whatever she wants. We have so much time that we can have dinner before the concert. He had so little trouble with the test that he left twenty minutes early. I had so little money that I couldn’t afford to go to the movies. Use countable nouns with – many & few Use uncountable nouns with – much & little

37 P 354 Ex 21 1.I waited such a long time that I thought I would never get permission. 2. When I got to Miami airport, the security lines were so long that I had to wait for almost two hours. There were so many people arriving at the same time. 3. I came to the U.S. by winning the Green Card Lottery. I was so happy when I got my letter that I started to cry. 4. The U.S. offers so much freedom that people from all over the world want to come here. 5. I come from Mexico. There is so much unemployment in Mexico that many people want to come to the U.S. for jobs.

38 6. Before I got my visa, I had to fill out so many papers and answer so many questions that I thought I would never be able to do it. 7. Our family has been in the U.S. for such a long time that we hardly even speak our native language anymore. 8. My neighbor’s baby was so young when she arrived from China that she doesn’t remember anything about China at all. 9. There are so few American babies to adopt that many families adopt babies from China, Russia, and other countries. 10. My uncle earned so little money in Guatemala that he couldn’t support his family, so he came to the U.S.

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