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HOW YOU CAN PREVENT BIRTH DEFECTS. KATEE DIRKSEN, KARISSA WILSON, & SEPTEMBER JOHNSON Healthy Fetal Development.

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Presentation on theme: "HOW YOU CAN PREVENT BIRTH DEFECTS. KATEE DIRKSEN, KARISSA WILSON, & SEPTEMBER JOHNSON Healthy Fetal Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOW YOU CAN PREVENT BIRTH DEFECTS. KATEE DIRKSEN, KARISSA WILSON, & SEPTEMBER JOHNSON Healthy Fetal Development

2 Congratulations! You’re Pregnant! In the upcoming months, your baby will be going through stages of growth and development to prepare them for the outside world. It is important that you take the necessary precautions during this time to ensure a healthy pregnancy.  This includes being cautious of what you put into your body.

3 Teratogens Teratogens are drugs or other substances that interfere with fetal development, causing congenital malformations, more commonly known as birth defects. Two of the most avoidable ingested teratogens are nicotine and alcohol.

4 THERE ARE MORE THAN 2,500 CHEMICALS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE. IN ADDITION TO THE IMPACT IT CAN HAVE ON YOUR OWN HEALTH, SMOKING CAUSES MANY ADVERSE EFFECTS ON YOUR UNBORN BABY. (MARCH OF DIMES) The Effects of Nicotine on Your Unborn Baby Quit Smoking Bulletin. Pregnant Woman Smoking. N.d. Quit Smoking Tips, U.S.. Quit Smoking Bulletin. Web. 9 Aug

5 The Effects of Nicotine on Your Unborn Baby Miscarriage  Mothers who smoke have an increased risk of miscarriage.  Mothers who continue to smoke throughout pregnancy have an increased risk of still birth. (Ackendorf) Pre-Term Labor Low Birth Weight  Cigarette chemicals can pass through the placenta into your baby’s bloodstream, slowing their growth. (Ackendorf)  Babies born to mothers who smoke weigh an average of 200 grams less than those born to nonsmokers. (Van Meurs)

6 The Effects of Nicotine on Your Unborn Baby Placental problems are responsible for half of the deaths of infants born to women who smoke. (March of Dimes)  Placenta Previa: smoking can cause the placenta to lie low, covering the opening in your uterus.  Responsible for about 10 in 1,000 general births  Placental Abruption: the placenta detaches from the uterine wall before delivery. Birth defects caused by smoking include:  Cleft lip  Congenital heart defects  Developmental delay  Learning disabilities (March of Dimes)  Cerebral Palsy (Ackendorf)  Increased risk of developing ADHD (Van Meurs) Unknown. Baby With Cleft Lip. N.d. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.. Department of Health and Human Services. Web. 13 Aug

7 Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke is also harmful to your baby. Exposure to secondhand smoke can lead to respiratory problems such as:  Weak lungs  Asthma  Respiratory infections  Bronchitis  Pneumonia Other health problems related to secondhand smoke exposure include:  Higher risk for ear infections  Higher risk of dying of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (Surgeon General) Children of smokers are more likely to contract various forms of cancer including:  Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia  Lymphoma (Van Meurs) Unknown. Secondhand Smoke. N.d. Secondhand Smoke Facts, Oregon. smokefree. Web. 13 Aug

8 DRINKING ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY CAN CAUSE A WIDE RANGE OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL BIRTH DEFECTS EACH YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES, UP TO 40,000 BABIES ARE BORN WITH FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (MARCH OF DIMES) The Effects of Alcohol on Your Unborn Baby

9 When a pregnant woman drinks, alcohol passes through the placenta to her unborn baby. Alcohol is broken down much more slowly in a baby’s body than that of an adult’s.  The baby's blood alcohol level can be higher and remain elevated longer than the level in the mother's blood.  This can cause the baby to suffer lifelong damage.

10 The Effects of Alcohol on Your Unborn Baby “Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders” (FASDs) is the term used to describe the many problems associated with alcohol exposure before birth Examples of FASDs include:  Mental retardation,  Learning, emotional, and behavioral problems,  Heart, facial, and organ defects, and the most clinically recognizable form of FASD;  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (American Academy of Family Physicians)

11 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggest that between 1,000 and 6,000 babies in the United States are born yearly with FAS. (March of Dimes) FAS is the only cause of mental retardation that is 100% preventable. Physical abnormalities associated with FAS include:  Flat midface  Upturned nose with a flat nasal bridge  Underdeveloped Ears  Small eyes  Thin upper lip  Underdeveloped and abnormally formed organs (Wattendorf and Muenke) Wattendorf, Daniel. FAS Face. N.d. Abnormal Development - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, U.S.. University of New South Wales - Embryology. Web. 13 Aug

12 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Other than physical abnormalities, FAS can present other lifelong effects including: Some degree of mental disability Poor coordination Short attention span Emotional and behavioral problems You are 56% more likely to have your baby contract FAS by binge drinking 3 or more times in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy then a women who hasn’t drank at all. (March of Dimes) Because there currently is no way to predict which babies will be damaged by alcohol, the safest course is not to drink alcohol at all during pregnancy. (Washington State Dept. of Health)

13 Identify Your Barriers What is preventing you from quitting? Common barriers include:  Withdrawal symptoms  Fear of failure  Weight gain  Lack of support  History of depression  Enjoyment of the “buzz” (Washington State Dept. of Health) Unknown. Pregnant Woman Drinking and Smoking. N.d. Reasons You Should Not Drink Alcohol When Pregnant, U.S.. TestCountry.com. Web. 9 Aug

14 Identify Your Triggers Before you can commit to quitting, you must identify the factors which cause the urge to smoke or drink. Once identified, you can try any of the following to distract yourself:  Occupy your hands. Do an activity such as drawing, squeezing a rubber ball, or working on a craft project.  Occupy your mouth. Suck on hard candy, chew gum, use a toothpick or straw, or sip water or juice. Avoid caffeinated beverages.  Occupy your mind. Think about your baby, or other pleasant activities. Change your routine to resist urges! (Washington State Dept. of Health)

15 Other Factors for Quitting Successfully If possible, ask others not to smoke around you.  Leave the room when others light a cigarette. Avoid situations and/or places where alcohol is served. Have a “Quit Buddy”.  A partner, or close acquaintance who doesn’t drink or smoke. Have a support system.  This can be family, or other important people in your life. Understand the harmful affects of drinking and smoking.  Not only for your baby, but for yourself as well. Although quitting early in pregnancy will yield the greatest benefits to you and baby, quitting at any time is better than not quitting at all. (March of Dimes, Washington State Dept. of Health)

16 Rewards There are many benefits of stopping tobacco and alcohol use. Improved overall health Improved sense of taste and smell Save money Feel better about yourself Home, car, clothing, breath etc. will smell better Can stop worrying about quitting Set a good example for children Have healthier babies and children Not worry about exposing others to smoke Feel better physically Perform better in physical activities Reduced wrinkling and aging of skin

17 Resources When you are ready to quit, we are here to support you and have resources that can help you. SMOKING RESOURCES Smoke-Free Families: cessation.orghttp://smokefreefamilies.tobacco- cessation.org American Lung Association: American Cancer Society: American Heart Association: American Medical Association: United States Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Disease Control Office on Smoking and Health: Centers for Disease Control Tobacco Information and Prevention Source: National Cancer Institute: EPA Environmental Tobacco Smoke: QuitNet: in 1995, QuitNet is a Web-based smoking cessation and resource forum funded by Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids’ Kick Butts Day: Butts Day is an annual program that encourages activism and leadership among grade school students quitnow.cancer.gov/ A toll-free quit line (800)-QUITNOW ( ) - Phone counseling and follow-up support calls available.

18 Resources When you are ready to quit, we are here to support you and have resources that can help you. ALCOHOL RESOURCES FASD Center of Excellence ons.cfm National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome American Society of Addictions Medicine Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD), (800) NCA-CALL ( ) The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Center for Excellence, (866)

19 Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Future Staying safe and healthy throughout pregnancy is important. This can be achieved through:  Good prenatal care,  Exercise,  Nutritious diet, and;  Avoidance of cigarettes, alcohol, and other harmful teratogens. If you have any questions, or would like more information on how to achieve your healthy pregnancy goals, please contact your doctor.

20 Works Cited Ackendorf, J. (2008, September 20). Dangers of Smoking During Pregnancy: Potential Harm to Baby When a Pregnant Woman Smokes. Prenatal Health. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from "Drinking Alcohol During Pregnancy - March of Dimes." Pregnancy, Babies, Prematurity - March of Dimes Foundation. March of Dimes, Nov Web. 04 Aug Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy: Guidelines for Intervention. Washington State Department of Health, Dec Web. 03 Aug "Smoking During Pregnancy - March of Dimes." Pregnancy, Babies, Prematurity - March of Dimes Foundation. March of Dimes, Apr Web. 31 July The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Office of the Surgeon General (OSG). Retrieved August 4, 2010, from Van Meurs, MD, K. (1999, September 5). Cigarette Smoking, Pregnancy, and the Developing Fetus. Stanford University School of Medicine. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from med.stanford.edu/medicalreview/smrp14-16.pdf Wattendorf, D., & Muenke, M. (2005, July 15). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from


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