3How do you expect to be treated? Introductory Video
4Background Information Written by James Madison after a call from several states for individual protections from the governmentRemember the arguments between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists—Madison was an Anti-FederalistHe was influenced by George Mason, author of The Virginia Declaration of RightsThis Bill of Rights LIMITS the powers of our government
5The 1st AmendmentGuarantees the freedom of religion, speech, press, and peaceable assemblyReligion: we can practice or not practice any beliefsSpeech: we can share what we think about the government (but we cannot tell lies or incite panic)Press: we can print what we think about the governmentPeaceable Assembly: we can hold demonstrations if we go through the right stepsPetition: we have the right to express our views and ask for change
6ReligionWhat should we do when “the enemy” is represented in America?
7SpeechWhere should we draw the line? Should there be a line?
8Peaceable AssemblyWhat are you willing to protest? What steps should we have to go through to be protected by this amendment?
9Press Involves much more today that ever expected! What do we really need to know?
10Right to Petition Have you ever been asked to sign a petition? We can try to change laws ourselves through petition…Create a lawAcquire enough signaturesPlace it on the ballot for citizens to decide
11The 2nd Amendment Guarantees the right to bear arms The actual wording: Amendment II: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.Today, we have so much controversy about what this meansA state ArmyWeapons for huntingThe ability to defend ourselvesSimple versus high powered guns
12Some of the Issues Should people have weapons at all? Are any weapons unacceptable?Should there be rules about who can have them?Should there be rules about how we acquire them?Should people be able to carry them around?Is it alright to conceal weapons?Do legal and illegal weapons contribute to crime?Who should make these rules?
14The 3rd AmendmentNot really an issue now, but was quite common in Colonial America
15The 4th Amendment Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure Police need a warrant to search your property, but if they have a good enough reason they can search youThings to considerStop and friskSearching a homeSearching a carPhone tapsLooking through garbage on the curbSocial media
16The 5th AmendmentDue Process: there has to be some serious evidence to even accuse a person of a crime; grand juries will make this decisionPlead the Fifth: we don’t have to incriminate ourselvesNo Double Jeopardy: we can’t be tried for the same crime twice
17Consider These:The Patriot Act: passed by Congress and signed by President Bush in 2001Allowed the government to detain immigrants, listen in on phone conversations, and search homes and businesses; was a response to the 9/11 attacksThe National Defense Authorization Act: passed by Congress and signed by President Obama each yearNewest provision allows for indefinite incarcerationAre these violations of the 5th Amendment?
18The 6th AmendmentIf you’re accused of a crime, what rights do you have?A speedy trialA public trialAn impartial juryA court appointed attorneyThe right to confront/question witnesses and the accuser
197th AmendmentRegarding civil cases—where one person sues another personIf it involves more than $1500 (the Constitution says $20), it has to be held before a jury; otherwise it’s settled in small claims courtA person cannot go to jail because of a civil case
208th Amendment We need to have an appropriate bail No cruel or unusual punishmentIs Capital Punishment Constitutional?
21The 9th AmendmentIt reads: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.Some call this the Silent Amendment because there is some power in it’s lack of wordsIn 1958, Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson wrote that the rights protected by the Ninth Amendment "are still a mystery."
22The 10th AmendmentPowers not granted to the Federal Government are left up to the individual states.What are some issues that could be involved?This is where we stand right now with same-sex marriage.
23Video: hand trick ? Bill of Rights in 30 Seconds You can do a better job than that! Write a script and act it out.Include all 10 amendmentsAim for less than a minuteWorth 15 pointsPresent or share a video for 15 bonus points
24Reconstructive Era Amendments Amendments 13 through 15
26What is the Reconstructive Era? Refers to the period following the Civil War; the United States had been divided and needed to be reconstructed.Questions that existed:How would the Confederate states be readmitted?What about emancipation for slaves?Do all the black men have the same status as white men?What about Confederate leaders? Are they traitors?
27The 13th AmendmentEnded slavery within the United States and anywhere within its jurisdictionCongress will pass laws necessary to enforce this AmendmentPass and ratified in 1865
28The 14th AmendmentEveryone born in the United States or naturalized is a citizen of the U.S. and of the state where he/she residesAll citizens, regardless of color, have the same rightsPass in 1866 and ratified in 1868Should this be amended?
29The 15th AmendmentThe right to vote cannot be denied to a citizen, regardless of color, race, or previous condition of servitudeMeaning: African Americans (including former slaves) can votePassed in and ratified in 1870
30Progressive Era Amendments Amendments 16 through 19
31What is the Progressive Era? Covers the time period from 1890 to 1920An umbrella label for a wide range of economic, political, social, and moral reformsWas a result of the industrial revolution and the growth of cities
32The 16th AmendmentCongress can collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumerationIf you’re going to have social services, someone has to pay for them!Passed in 1909 and ratified in 1913
33The Tax ControversyThere are citizens that refuse to pay taxes—and tax fraud is a federal offense Some cite earlier amendments as offering protectionSome claim this amendment was never legally ratified
34The 17th AmendmentUnder the Constitution, Senators were elected by individual state legislaturesThis Amendment gave citizens the right to elect the Senators that represent their statePassed in 1912 and ratified in 1913
35The 18th Amendment Our Amendment for Prohibition Within one year of ratification—no more alcoholRatified in 1917 and passed in 1919
36Roots for ProhibitionBy 1830, the average American over 15 years old consumed nearly seven gallons of pure alcohol a year – three times as much as we drink today.Alcohol abuse (primarily by men) was wreaking havoc on the lives of many, particularly in an age when women had few legal rights and were utterly dependent on their husbands for sustenance and support.
37History of Prohibition Supporting the BanAgainst the BanHistory of Prohibition
38Passed in 1919 and ratified in 1920 The 19th AmendmentThe right to vote will not be restricted by gender… women have the right to votePassed in 1919 and ratified in 1920
39Extensions of Suffrage Amendments 15, 19, 23, 24, and 26
40The 15th AmendmentRemember, this Amendment extended voting privileges to African American men
41The 19th AmendmentRemember, this Amendment extended voting privileges to women
42The 23rd AmendmentExtended the right to vote for president to the residents of Washington, D.C.; prior to this, they were unable to vote for President!Cannot have more electoral votes than the fewest assigned to a statePassed in 1960 and ratified in 1961
43The 24th Amendment Eliminated poll taxes At this time, five states were still charging taxes to vote! They were: Virginia, Alabama, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi.No one has to pay for the right to vote!Passed in 1962 and ratified in 1964.
44The 26th Amendment Lowered the voting age to 18 from 21 Discussion first began during WWII when the draft age was lowered to 18Passed and ratified in 1971— the fastest amendment to be ratified
46The 12th AmendmentProvisions for electing a President and a Vice PresidentPrior to this amendment, the Electoral College would vote for who they thought should be president; the person with the most votes became President, the second most became Vice President—even if they were from different political partiesThe VP must be Constitutionally eligible to be PresidentPassed in 1803 and ratified in 1804
47The 20th Amendment Set the terms for the President and Congress A Presidential term begins at noon on January 20thEach Congressional term begins at noon on January 3rd—and they’re required to meetPassed in 1932 and ratified in 1933
48The 22nd Amendment Limits a President to two four-year terms in office Trend to serve two terms started with WashingtonFDR ignored this trend and was elected FOUR times during the Depression and World War IIIf a VP finishes more than two years of a presidential term, it counts as a full termPassed in 1947 and ratified in 1951
49The 25th Amendment What happens to the Presidency if the president is Impaired, disabled, or unable to perform his duties?1. VP automatically becomes President if the current President dies, resigns, or is removed from office2. The President can choose a new VP if something happens (must be approved by Congress)3. VP can become Acting President temporarily with a written declaration to begin and end this time4. The VP and Congress can act in an emergency to say the President is unfit to serveThe first three provisions have been used, the fourth hasn’tProposed in 1965 and ratified in 1967.
50Unique Historical Circumstances Amendments 11, 21, and 27
51The 11th AmendmentDeclares the state governments sovereign—meaning they are exempt from criminal or civil lawsuitAs a citizen of Ohio, if I sue California it must go to the U.S. Supreme CourtWas seen as a protection for the states from the Judicial BranchProposed in 1794 and ratified in 1795
52The 21st Amendment The repeal of Prohibition Proposed and ratified in 1933
53The 27th AmendmentCongressional salaries will not change until AFTER the election of Representatives to the House.Proposed in 1789 , but not ratified until 1992!This had been a part of the proposed amendments that became the Bill of Rights
55Supreme Court Cases and The Amendments Work alone or with a small group—chose an amendment for each personFind at least two U.S. Supreme Court cases that dealt with the Amendment(s)Word the Amendment(s) in your own wordsSummarize the court casesExplain how these cases strengthened the protection of the Amendment(s) for the American people
57Why add an Amendment?Remember, an Amendment is a CHANGE to the ConstitutionWhy would we change this important document?Proposed by Congress or State Legislatures; voted on by State Legislatures or State ConventionsWe’ve had Amendments dealing with civil rights, suffrage, and citizenship
58Legalization of Marijuana Green = legalBlack = illegalBlue = medicinal useGold = medicinal use and decriminalizedTan = decriminalized
59Same Sex MarriageGold = No RightsPurple = Full Rights
61Your Assignment!Write a persuasive paper addressing a future potential amendment or a change in a current amendment.Include personal reasons to support passage of this amendment, but also look up some research that supports it.Craft a well-written five paragraph paper thatIntroduces your amendmentIncludes at least three separate reasons/supportsA conclusion that calls for action