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To the U.S. Constitution.  The Bill of Rights Amendments 1 through 10.

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Presentation on theme: "To the U.S. Constitution.  The Bill of Rights Amendments 1 through 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 To the U.S. Constitution

2  The Bill of Rights Amendments 1 through 10

3 How do you expect to be treated? Introductory Video

4   Written by James Madison after a call from several states for individual protections from the government  Remember the arguments between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists—Madison was an Anti- Federalist  He was influenced by George Mason, author of The Virginia Declaration of Rights  This Bill of Rights LIMITS the powers of our government Background Information

5   Guarantees the freedom of religion, speech, press, and peaceable assembly  Religion: we can practice or not practice any beliefs  Speech: we can share what we think about the government (but we cannot tell lies or incite panic)  Press: we can print what we think about the government  Peaceable Assembly: we can hold demonstrations if we go through the right steps  Petition: we have the right to express our views and ask for change The 1 st Amendment

6 Religion What should we do when “the enemy” is represented in America?

7 Speech Where should we draw the line? Should there be a line?

8 Peaceable Assembly What are you willing to protest? What steps should we have to go through to be protected by this amendment?

9 Press Involves much more today that ever expected! What do we really need to know?

10 Right to Petition Have you ever been asked to sign a petition? We can try to change laws ourselves through petition… Create a law Acquire enough signatures Place it on the ballot for citizens to decide

11   Guarantees the right to bear arms  The actual wording: Amendment II: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.  Today, we have so much controversy about what this means  A state Army  Weapons for hunting  The ability to defend ourselves  Simple versus high powered guns The 2 nd Amendment

12   Should people have weapons at all?  Are any weapons unacceptable?  Should there be rules about who can have them?  Should there be rules about how we acquire them?  Should people be able to carry them around?  Is it alright to conceal weapons?  Do legal and illegal weapons contribute to crime?  Who should make these rules? Some of the Issues

13  Should we own guns? ForAgainst

14  The 3 rd Amendment  Not really an issue now, but was quite common in Colonial America

15  The 4 th Amendment  Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure  Police need a warrant to search your property, but if they have a good enough reason they can search you  Things to consider  Stop and frisk  Searching a home  Searching a car  Phone taps  Looking through garbage on the curb  Social media

16  The 5 th Amendment  Due Process: there has to be some serious evidence to even accuse a person of a crime; grand juries will make this decision  Plead the Fifth: we don’t have to incriminate ourselves  No Double Jeopardy: we can’t be tried for the same crime twice

17   The Patriot Act: passed by Congress and signed by President Bush in 2001  Allowed the government to detain immigrants, listen in on phone conversations, and search homes and businesses; was a response to the 9/11 attacks  The National Defense Authorization Act: passed by Congress and signed by President Obama each year  Newest provision allows for indefinite incarceration  Are these violations of the 5 th Amendment? Consider These:

18  The 6 th Amendment  If you’re accused of a crime, what rights do you have?  A speedy trial  A public trial  An impartial jury  A court appointed attorney  The right to confront/question witnesses and the accuser

19   Regarding civil cases—where one person sues another person  If it involves more than $1500 (the Constitution says $20), it has to be held before a jury; otherwise it’s settled in small claims court  A person cannot go to jail because of a civil case 7 th Amendment

20  8 th Amendment  We need to have an appropriate bail  No cruel or unusual punishment  Is Capital Punishment Constitutional? Is Capital Punishment Constitutional?

21   It reads: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.  Some call this the Silent Amendment because there is some power in it’s lack of words  In 1958, Supreme Court Justice Robert H. Jackson wrote that the rights protected by the Ninth Amendment "are still a mystery." The 9 th Amendment

22   Powers not granted to the Federal Government are left up to the individual states.  What are some issues that could be involved?  This is where we stand right now with same-sex marriage. The 10 th Amendment

23   Bill of Rights in 30 Seconds Bill of Rights in 30 Seconds  You can do a better job than that! Write a script and act it out.  Include all 10 amendments  Aim for less than a minute  Worth 15 points  Present or share a video for 15 bonus points Video: hand trick ?

24  Reconstructive Era Amendments Amendments 13 through 15

25  Civil War Separation

26   Refers to the period following the Civil War; the United States had been divided and needed to be reconstructed.  Questions that existed:  How would the Confederate states be readmitted?  What about emancipation for slaves?  Do all the black men have the same status as white men?  What about Confederate leaders? Are they traitors? What is the Reconstructive Era?

27  The 13 th Amendment  Ended slavery within the United States and anywhere within its jurisdiction  Congress will pass laws necessary to enforce this Amendment  Pass and ratified in 1865

28  The 14 th Amendment  Everyone born in the United States or naturalized is a citizen of the U.S. and of the state where he/she resides  All citizens, regardless of color, have the same rights  Pass in 1866 and ratified in 1868 Should this be amended?

29  The 15 th Amendment  The right to vote cannot be denied to a citizen, regardless of color, race, or previous condition of servitude  Meaning: African Americans (including former slaves) can vote  Passed in 1869 and ratified in 1870

30  Progressive Era Amendments Amendments 16 through 19

31  What is the Progressive Era?  Covers the time period from 1890 to 1920  An umbrella label for a wide range of economic, political, social, and moral reforms  Was a result of the industrial revolution and the growth of cities

32  The 16 th Amendment  Congress can collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration  If you’re going to have social services, someone has to pay for them!  Passed in 1909 and ratified in 1913

33  The Tax Controversy  There are citizens that refuse to pay taxes— and tax fraud is a federal offense   Some cite earlier amendments as offering protection  Some claim this amendment was never legally ratified

34  The 17 th Amendment  Under the Constitution, Senators were elected by individual state legislatures  This Amendment gave citizens the right to elect the Senators that represent their state  Passed in 1912 and ratified in 1913

35  The 18 th Amendment  Our Amendment for Prohibition  Within one year of ratification—no more alcohol  Ratified in 1917 and passed in 1919

36  Roots for Prohibition  By 1830, the average American over 15 years old consumed nearly seven gallons of pure alcohol a year – three times as much as we drink today.  Alcohol abuse (primarily by men) was wreaking havoc on the lives of many, particularly in an age when women had few legal rights and were utterly dependent on their husbands for sustenance and support.

37  History of Prohibition Supporting the BanAgainst the Ban

38 The 19 th Amendment The right to vote will not be restricted by gender… women have the right to vote Passed in 1919 and ratified in 1920

39  Extensions of Suffrage Amendments 15, 19, 23, 24, and 26

40  The 15 th Amendment  Remember, this Amendment extended voting privileges to African American men

41  The 19 th Amendment  Remember, this Amendment extended voting privileges to women

42   Extended the right to vote for president to the residents of Washington, D.C.; prior to this, they were unable to vote for President!  Cannot have more electoral votes than the fewest assigned to a state  Passed in 1960 and ratified in 1961 The 23 rd Amendment

43  The 24 th Amendment  Eliminated poll taxes  At this time, five states were still charging taxes to vote! They were: Virginia, Alabama, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi.  No one has to pay for the right to vote!  Passed in 1962 and ratified in 1964.

44   Lowered the voting age to 18 from 21  Discussion first began during WWII when the draft age was lowered to 18  Passed and ratified in 1971— the fastest amendment to be ratified The 26 th Amendment

45  The Presidency Amendments 12, 20, 22, and 25

46   Provisions for electing a President and a Vice President  Prior to this amendment, the Electoral College would vote for who they thought should be president; the person with the most votes became President, the second most became Vice President—even if they were from different political parties  The VP must be Constitutionally eligible to be President  Passed in 1803 and ratified in 1804 The 12 th Amendment

47  The 20 th Amendment  Set the terms for the President and Congress  A Presidential term begins at noon on January 20 th  Each Congressional term begins at noon on January 3 rd —and they’re required to meet  Passed in 1932 and ratified in 1933

48   Limits a President to two four-year terms in office  Trend to serve two terms started with Washington  FDR ignored this trend and was elected FOUR times during the Depression and World War II  If a VP finishes more than two years of a presidential term, it counts as a full term  Passed in 1947 and ratified in 1951 The 22 nd Amendment

49   1. VP automatically becomes President if the current President dies, resigns, or is removed from office  2. The President can choose a new VP if something happens (must be approved by Congress)  3. VP can become Acting President temporarily with a written declaration to begin and end this time  4. The VP and Congress can act in an emergency to say the President is unfit to serve  The first three provisions have been used, the fourth hasn’t  Proposed in 1965 and ratified in The 25 th Amendment What happens to the Presidency if the president is Impaired, disabled, or unable to perform his duties?

50  Unique Historical Circumstances Amendments 11, 21, and 27

51   Declares the state governments sovereign—meaning they are exempt from criminal or civil lawsuit  As a citizen of Ohio, if I sue California it must go to the U.S. Supreme Court  Was seen as a protection for the states from the Judicial Branch  Proposed in 1794 and ratified in 1795 The 11 th Amendment

52   The repeal of Prohibition  Proposed and ratified in 1933 The 21 st Amendment

53   Congressional salaries will not change until AFTER the election of Representatives to the House.  Proposed in 1789, but not ratified until 1992!  This had been a part of the proposed amendments that became the Bill of Rights The 27 th Amendment

54  Review the Amendments

55   Work alone or with a small group—chose an amendment for each person  Find at least two U.S. Supreme Court cases that dealt with the Amendment(s)  Word the Amendment(s) in your own words  Summarize the court cases  Explain how these cases strengthened the protection of the Amendment(s) for the American people Supreme Court Cases and The Amendments

56  Potential Future Amendments

57   Remember, an Amendment is a CHANGE to the Constitution  Why would we change this important document?  Proposed by Congress or State Legislatures; voted on by State Legislatures or State Conventions  We’ve had Amendments dealing with civil rights, suffrage, and citizenship Why add an Amendment?

58  Legalization of Marijuana  Green = legal  Black = illegal  Blue = medicinal use  Gold = medicinal use and decriminalized  Tan = decriminalized

59  Same Sex Marriage Purple = Full Rights Gold = No Rights

60  Immigration Reform

61   Write a persuasive paper addressing a future potential amendment or a change in a current amendment.  Include personal reasons to support passage of this amendment, but also look up some research that supports it.  Craft a well-written five paragraph paper that  Introduces your amendment  Includes at least three separate reasons/supports  A conclusion that calls for action Your Assignment!

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