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2015 PhD and Junior Faculty GEM Workshop Maria Minniti

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1 2015 PhD and Junior Faculty GEM Workshop Maria Minniti

2 Today’s Agenda:  1:45 – Introduction  2:00 – Developing an International Profile  2:30 – International Entrepreneurship Journals  2:45 – Publishing in International Journals  4:00 - Break  4:15 – Submission & the R&R Process  5:00 – Reviewing for International Journals  5:15 – Good and Bad Research Ideas  5:45 – Workshop ends

3 Developing a Profile (1) A - You MUST be part of an intellectual club, possibly more than one, and preferably at least an international one (It’s often not what you know but who you know) - Being part of GEM is a very good beginning but it is not enough 3 Maria Minniti©2012

4 The Field Today: People  AOM-ENT division has 2,557 members (6 th largest of 25)  ENT+Innovation&Technology-Overlap is 4,413 people (3 rd largest after only OB and STRA)  BCERC had more than 750 submissions  USASBE has 1,000+ members Maria Minniti©2012

5 Developing a Profile (2) B – Present your work at well established international conferences C – Submit to well established international journals - GEM reports are NOT academic publications 5 Maria Minniti©2012

6 The Field Today: Products refereed, English-language journals in eship and small business (Thank you Jerry Katz for compiling the list) Among them e-ship journals: - In 2013, JBV ranked A or Top Tier in more than 250 Colleges & Universities world-wide - JBV’s impact factor for 2013 was about 3.8 which is in line or higher than Management Science, Marketing Science, Journal of Organization Behavior, Accounting Review, Academy of Management Learning and Education, and Research Policy. Maria Minniti©2012

7 Additional Journals -Management Science -ETP -SEJ -ERD -SBEJ -ISBJ 7 Maria Minniti©2012

8 8 ARE YOU A MEMBER OF THE AOM? DO YOU READ JBV? SEJ? ETP? DO YOU SKIM OVER AMR?

9 Publishing in International Journals: What Makes a Good Article? 1.Tell readers what you will do 2.Tell readers what you do 3.Tell readers what you have done -READ what has been already published on that topic -Know your targeted journal -Take your work seriously (or others will not) -The language, the language, the language 9 Maria Minniti©2012

10 What are the 3 questions you should always ask yourself before you start writing? Q.1 What is your research question? A research question is a falsifiable statement whose answer is yet unknown If you are not able to list some possible answers you don’t have a question This is the most important step on the process. It requires time, thinking, and reading. Most people skimp on this step and jump into the writing part. Big mistake! 10 Maria Minniti©2012

11 Q.2 – Who is your audience? a.What disciplinary approach will you take? b.What journal will you target? (1 st choice, 2 nd choice, etc) - Don’t forget to READ that journal - Check out editors and editorial board c. Are there journalS that will publish this type of article and topic? 11 Maria Minniti©2012

12 Q.3 – Is this RQ worth the time and effort? What is already known about your topic and related areas and in related disciplines? -This will become your theoretical background Who are the players? -These will be your potential feedback, readers, and REVIEWERS (Remember: Reviewers are always in a bad mood) Do you have the chance to make a contribution sufficient to warrant publication in your targeted journal? - Remember: Overconfidence is the most common human bias 12 Maria Minniti©2012

13 A GOOD RESEARCH QUESTION EXPLAINS MECHANISMS  “Just because it hasn’t been done, doesn’t make it important”  Two types of approach:  Deductive: Use logical arguments with support from literature to develop hypotheses or propositions  Inductive: Use original empirical evidence to expand on existing theory

14 IF THE ANSWER TO QUESTION 3 PART C IS YES WITH A NARROW CONFIDENCE INTERVAL YOU SHOULD START WRITING 14 Maria Minniti©2012

15 What are the 10 necessary (though not sufficient) components of a good paper? -Abstract -Introduction -Theoretical background -Hypotheses development (if applicable) -Data description (if applicable) and descriptive statistics -Description of method(s) and results -Analysis and discussion of results -Conclusion -References -Appendix and Exhibits (if applicable) 15 Maria Minniti©2012

16 LET’S WRITE A PAPER  Find 2-3 papers in an A journal that are similar to yours  TOPICS ANYONE?? Maria Minniti©201216

17 The Abstract Possibly the most important part of the paper Short and to the point (NO MORE THAN 200 WORDS) No references, no lingo (Grandma’ Test - Could your grandma’ read it?) What should it contain? - What the RQ is - Why your RQ matters - What the answer to your RQ is (Contribution) - Why your answer is GREAT! 17 Maria Minniti©2012

18 The Abstract (Example 1) (178 words) Levels of entrepreneurial activity vary considerably across countries. RQ: We argue that, under certain conditions, the distribution of a population across age cohorts may have a significant effect on the aggregate level of entrepreneurship and, as a result, on economic growth. Why doe it matter? Because of rigidities in the mobility of resources and in the substitutability of employment choices across age groups, countries whose populations are excessively skewed toward old or young cohorts are likely to experience low levels of entrepreneurial activity. Although our argument is intuitive, Contribution: we develop a mathematical model that allows us to characterize precisely the conditions sufficient for the level of aggregate entrepreneurial activity to decrease as a population ages or becomes younger, and to identify all critical threshold values. Great answer: At a time when poorer countries confront unprecedented increases in population, while several developed ones see their populations aging, our study provides important insights on the relationship between demographic structure, aggregate entrepreneurial activity, and economic growth. More importantly, our paper helps understand why, among other things, many costly policy interventions, especially those of international aid organizations, have failed. 18 Maria Minniti©2012

19 The Abstract (Example 2) (166 words) Why does it matter? High failure rates and low average returns suggest that too many people may be entering markets as entrepreneurs. Great answer (a): Thus, anticipating how one will perform in the market is a fundamental component of the decision to start a business. RQ: Using a large sample obtained from population surveys conducted in 18 countries, we study what variables are significantly associated with the decision to start a business. Contribution: We find strong evidence that subjective, and often biased, perceptions have a crucial impact on new business creation across all countries in our sample. The strongest cross-national covariate of an individual’s entrepreneurial propensity is shown to be whether the person believes herself to have the sufficient skills, knowledge and ability to start a business. In addition, we find a significant negative correlation between this reported level of entrepreneurial confidence and the approximate survival chances of nascent entrepreneurs across countries. Great answer (b): Our results suggest that some countries exhibit relatively high rates of start-up activity because their inhabitants are more (over)confident than in other countries. 19 Maria Minniti©2012

20 The Introduction What is the exact RQ being addressed? Why does your RQ matters? What is the gap in the literature being addressed (i.e., what is the context for your RQ)? What is your answer to the RQ (i.e., what is the original contribution of this article)? What do you do to answer your RQ? Why is your answer GREAT? Use and expand abstract but do not replicate 20 Maria Minniti©2012

21 The Theoretical Background -What is already known about your topic and closely related areas -How do you depart from and contribute to the topic at the conceptual level -This section may include the development of hypotheses or propositions and your related theoretical developments -This section is very important because it sets the tone for the paper. From this section, reviewers start forming their opinion whether or not you know what you are talking about 21 Maria Minniti©2012

22  The theoretical background is where you should present you review of the literature  The review of the literature is not a summary of papers, is a thread to tell your argument. This is how you position it in an existing debate and show that you know what you are talking about  You have to show that you contribute to a body of literature using a specific theoretical lens. In other words, you PLUG a gap in a body of literature using another body of literature.  You may fill a gap or extend a frontier  As a rule of thumb, your dependent variable usually determines the research area you are contributing to Important about the theoretical background:

23 Hypotheses development (if applicable) -Depending on the type of paper, hypotheses or proposition development may require a separate section -Important: Hypotheses MUST be falsifiable. Since Popper, we don’t like non-falsifiable theories (thus hypotheses and propositions) -A hypothesis is a suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon or a logical proposal predicting a possible causal relation between phenomena -A proposition is a statement that is either true or false -A hypothesis motivates a research activity. A proposition is the conclusion of a research activity. 23 Maria Minniti©2012

24 Data description (if applicable) and descriptive statistics -A detailed and precise description of the data, their collection method, and their statistical properties -A justification of why the data are suitable to test your hypotheses/study -Descriptive statistics (They are very powerful – Take the time to find simple and effective ways to show your data) EXAMPLE 24 Maria Minniti©2012

25 Sufficient skill perceptions

26 Description of method(s) and results -A detailed and precise description of the method you have chosen -A convincing justification of why the method is suitable for your purpose and, hopefully, superior to the available alternative (This is very important. This is where most empirical papers crash – Note: The fact that someone else has used the method is never an acceptable justification) -Simple and well organized description of your results 26 Maria Minniti©2012

27 Analysis and discussion of results -Interpret your result and analyze them in strict adherence to the RQ -Do not torture your results to make them say what you were hoping they would say -Sometimes the best result is no result -Note: If you don’t buy it, nobody else will! -Discuss shortcomings of your data and method and their implications for your results (This is the best way to preempt criticisms – Make it as difficult as possible for reviewers to say you are wrong) -If, given what you have, any of the shortcomings can be addressed, then you should address it. Don’t leave it for “further research” 27 Maria Minniti©2012

28 Conclusion -Brief -Summary of RQ and why it matters -Summary of what your original contribution is -Opportunities for further research (only real ones) -Remember: Your grandma’ should be able to read and understand your abstract and also most of your introduction and conclusion (don’t confuse obscurity with depth – don’t try to sound erudite – don’t try to impress your readers: talk to them!) 28 Maria Minniti©2012

29 References -Consistent, precise and complete -Only necessary ones -Avoid self-citations as much as possible -Don’t forget: The journal, the editors, the editorial boards, the main players in the area 29 Maria Minniti©2012

30  BREAK

31 Submission Process -Proof read and check for readable -Check journals for standards -Add only the figures and tables that are necessary (Shorter articles are read more often) -Have paper read by colleagues before submitting -Make all data and routines available -Don’t forget to include appropriate acknowledgments -Add brief cover letter 31 Maria Minniti©2012

32 REVIEWS: THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY (A SURVIVAL GUIDE TO SUCCESSFUL RESUBMISSIONS)

33 HOW SHOULD YOU FEEL ABOUT AN R&R? A R&R, no matter how weak, is a “huge” open door toward publication Go get a drink and celebrate You always, ALWAYS, accept a R&R Has anybody here received a R&R already?

34 How should an R&R “look like”? Different disciplines & journals have somewhat different standards. However, all resubmissions should include:  Brief cover letter to editor (more on this later)  Thank for and highlight praise and encouragement that your paper has received  Address each comment you were given separately (it may help to reproduce them)  In some cases, when a big overhaul is done, it may help to include a brief paragraph that “repositions” the paper (more on this later) Example:

35 Dear Professor SO&SO, Thank you for giving me and my coauthors the opportunity to revise and resubmit the paper entitled “Bla bla bla bla" [Here journal name and manuscript number]. We are grateful to you and the reviewers for the helpful comments you have provided. We have incorporated them in the revised draft and we believe we now have a much stronger paper. Below we explain how we addressed each and every comment. We hope you and the reviewers will be pleased with the result of our revisions. Please let us know if you have any questions. We look forward to hearing from you soon. Best regards,

36 What makes for a good R&R?  A good R&R is strategic It’s your R&R and your paper: You have to manage the process  A good R&R addresses each and all comments with competence, accuracy, and completeness Note: Timeliness is important (Including for how much you are “into” your own paper) Managing your pipeline: Tradeoff between R&R vs current projects

37 How should a R&R be approached?  All reviewers and comments are created equal  The burden of proof is on you  A good R&R shows that you take your own work seriously (or nobody else will)  Your ultimate “customer” is the editor The response document is very important because:  Some reviewers/editors look at the response document more than the paper  While the paper is the output, the response document is your conversation (Q&A, seminar?) with the reviewers

38 What type of R&R can you get and how are they different?  Minor revisions (rare at first)  Major or substantial revisions (most common)  High risk revise and resubmit (here you need to present a coherent message of overall improvement – beyond saying “we did this and changed that”)

39 What types of reviewer can you get? In general, and regardless of how they express it, reviewers try to think of ways to make your paper better, most of them have been chosen because they know that literature, most of them are not idiots. Thus, take their suggestions seriously, you may actually end up with a better paper. Of course, different type of reviewers exist and these differences may require different types of answers:  The good  The bad  And the ugly Examples:

40 The Bad Reviewer 2: “While I like the data set and the econometrics is robust, I am very concerned about the theoretical positioning of this paper. The paper focuses on the behavior of black-owned startups in the US. However, it is important to establish how and if the story in the paper applies to other minority groups and to women. Thus, for the paper to be publishable, at the very minimum the authors need to replicate their analysis by segregating their sample into more racial groups and among men and women. This, of course, also require a significant expansion of the literature review and a reconsideration of the discussion and conclusion sections.” Answer: We thank Reviewer 2 for appreciating how our paper fits in the broader context of entrepreneurship research on minority and gender. After careful consideration, however, we have decided to continue limiting our paper to the discussion of black owned startups. We do so because our data are good at capturing two distinctive feature of those startups only, namely the average lower collateral and informal financing available to borrowers. In addition, while generalization is certainly appealing, we are concerned about the space tradeoff between breadth and depth. We have included some comments along the lines suggested by the reviewer in the conclusion where we identify avenue for possible extensions of this paper. For example….

41 The Ugly Reviewer 3 comments: 1. “This paper is conceptually flawed. The author needs…” 2. “The KFS database has been used inappropriately. The author must…” 3. “There are a number of other serious problems with this paper. In light of the above flaws, however, I will not go into these issues.” Cover to editor: The accompanying response document provides details on how we have addressed each and every comment. Respectfully, we would also like to point out that although Reviewer 3 begins his(her) comments with very negative statements, the substance of his(her) comments is relatively mild. We are confident we were able to address them satisfactorily in our responses.

42 What types of response can you give? Two basic types:  Cooperate (fits most of the times)  Stand your ground (make a compelling case why the reviewer is wrong) THIS IS A PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT ISSUE

43 What sticky situations are you likely to encounter?  Reviewers have made conflicting suggestions  Reviewer wants you to write a different paper (remember example for “the bad” above)  Reviewer request cannot be satisfied (usually deals with data constraints) Example:

44 Reviewer 1 wrote: “Authors should use the application/denial information that I know their dataset contains to get at availability of credit and also to control for selection effects.” Response: Reviewer 1 makes a very good point. Unfortunately, we cannot address the “application/denial” issue because of the very small sample size. The table below shows that the question was asked only in a subset of years and that only a small number of observations have values. We could run estimates based only on the units with complete information, but the results would be meaningless since they would fall short of the sample size requirement for survival analysis. We were able, however, to control for selection effects by re-estimating our models for the period after excluding observations who reported “fear of denial”. While dropping those who did not apply for fear of denial reduces the sample‘s size, the reduction is small. Tables 3B and 5B in the Appendix to this document show the new estimates. Results remain very similar to and consistent with those presented in Tables 3 and 5 in the paper. Because of this consistency we have decided to maintain the original formulation in the paper but have included a discussion of the new results as a robustness check.

45 How should multiple rounds of reviews be handled?  Start again from Slide 2 – Repeat as necessary  Attention spans are short: Never give information for granted  If necessary, ask the editor do his/her job Examples:

46 R&R – Round 4 In cover letter to editor: We have given Reviewer 2’s last comment serious consideration. While we appreciate his(her) concern, we maintain that the retrofitting of our results to Equation 1 in Minniti and Levesque (2006) is neither necessary nor desirable. In our response to the reviewer below we have articulated our reasons in detail. Since our paper deals with time sensitive topic and data, and both reviewers have now expressed support for the paper except for this last comment from Reviewer 2, we are wondering whether it would be possible for you to give us a quick response on this version of the paper. As you can understand, we are eager to see the paper out. Also, we believe it is important (for us and the journal) that empirical pieces get in print in a timely fashion.

47 TO SUM UP:  A good R&R shows that you take your own work seriously  A good R&R is strategic (You have to manage the process)  Your ultimate “customer” is the editor  A good R&R takes seriously and addresses each and all comments  You CAN stand your ground

48 What if you get a rejection? 48 Maria Minniti©2012

49 What if you get a rejection? TRUST ME: YOU WILL 49 Maria Minniti©2012

50 Reviewing Papers for an International Journal Why it is important to do reviews: - part of the job - learn what is being written - network/develop reputation with editors What should a good review look like? What should never go in a review? 50 Maria Minniti©2012

51 Writing Successful Grant-Proposals (1/2) GUIDELINES  Go beyond what is normally part of the GEM cycle  Support participation in extended PhD workshop  Particularly encouraged are proposals which: - Apply, develop and promote new insights based on GEM, including methodological approaches, development of GEM conceptual framework and building of theoretical models, novel questions, units of analysis, and phenomena - Break new ground in enhancing understanding about entrepreneurship from a global perspective - Produce actionable insights and practicable implications, with particular emphasis on public policy - Benefit the wider GEM community by promoting international research collaboration GERA Board allocates funds with reviewers’ recommendations Maria Minniti©

52 Writing Successful Grant-Proposals (2/2) FORMAT - Max 3 pages and include:  Description  Project title  Persons involved  Significance of the research  Current state of knowledge  Methodology  Aims  Timeline for Activities  Budget (include info on previous or parallel funding)  Expected Outputs  Benefits to GERA Maria Minniti©

53 GOOD LUCK! ( You’ll need it ) 53 Maria Minniti©2012


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