Presentation on theme: "Revisiting Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Revisiting Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU) Dr. Len Almond
2 Purpose of the Workshop Revitalise interest in TGFU to inspire a rethinking of how we teach gamesEncourage you to form your own study group to improve the teaching of games – use the internetIt will be for teachers and coaches. We will provide support to enable teachers to create a new way of thinking about games teaching
3 Jigsaw Puzzle Approach All of us (including young people) haveInadequate knowledge baseInadequate understandingInadequate tools for making connections in learning
7 The development of teacher/coach dependent performers Consensus of collected observations on the way that games were being taught (1980) 1A large percentage of children achieving little success due to the emphasis on performanceThe majority of school leavers leaving school “knowing” very little about gamesThe development of teacher/coach dependent performers
8 Consensus of collected observations on the way that games were being taught (1980) 2 The production of supposedly “skilful” players who in fact possess inflexible techniques and poor decision making capacityThe failure to develop “thinking” spectators and “knowing” administrators at a time when games (and sport) are an important form of entertainment in the leisure industry
9 Use a curriculum framework Our Starting PointHow do you translate a complex adult game into meaningful progressive units that enable a learner to play the game well?Use a curriculum framework
10 A Curriculum Framework RepresentationExaggerationModificationShapingTo develop understanding and intelligent performance
11 Application to GamesRepresent the adult game in its simplest game formsIdentify a starter game to ensure that the learners enjoy early success and develop confidence.Exaggerate key components that you want to focus on in a specific game form to highlight the essential elements of play
12 Application to GamesModify the demands of the game form to enable the student to play the game successfully.Identify a logical and progressive sequence of these key components in developmental game formsShape the game forms
13 First papers on Understanding and Intelligent Action
14 Understanding the Game Intelligent Performance (Action in a game) Key Features of TGFU in 1979Understanding the GameIntelligent Performance (Action in a game)Game Centred
15 HOW DO WE HELP YOUNG PEOPLE TO ACHIEVE THIS? What is Understanding?How can we GRASP the structure of a game? How can we SEE possibilities? how can we MAKE SENSE of Games?HOW DO WE HELP YOUNG PEOPLE TO ACHIEVE THIS?
16 There are two aspects of Understanding THE LEARNER - Understanding of game acquired by a learner (young person or adult) leading to intelligent performanceTHE TEACHER - Understanding of games by the teacher (or coach) and secondly understanding the process by which they can promote understanding in learners (their pedagogy) so that they can demonstrate their intelligent performance (in their pedagogy)
18 Clarifying some points Aim of a game- to outscore (points/goals/runs) your opponent (s) by outwitting and outplaying them (strategy and tactics)Point of a game:challenge an opponent (s) to play a game who will give you a good gameThis is why striving to win is NOT the sole point of the game?It is a primary ruleIf winning was the only point, you would choose to play only easy players that you could beat.
19 Classification of Games InvasionHandFootStickNet/WallDividedSharedStriking/FieldingFanOvalTargetOpposedUnopposed
20 Guiding PrinciplesRepresentationExaggerationModificationShapingTo develop understanding and intelligent performance
24 Modification Principles – to reduce the demands of the game Provide more appropriate:Rules that fit the needs of childrenEquipment for younger children that enable them to play and learnPlaying timePlaying areas and spacesReduceNumber of players in a teamBody contactThe domination of a game by player ability or physique
25 Modification in Context Create enabling environments – appropriate game forms/developmentally appropriateShaping GamesExternal focusLearn in different/variable contextsJean Cote researchDevelop technical capacities/prowessUse Chelsea example4 goals playing across different colours
27 Intelligent Performance Technical prowessSolving the puzzles that emerge in a game to outwit the oppositionGame intelligenceApplying what we have learnt in scenario practices to real game situations – being skilfulBehavioural Flexibility
28 How can we SHAPE Games? Simplifying the process of playing a game Challenging players to progressively develop their understanding of playing the gameStretching a players capabilities
29 We need to identify Scenarios AttackingDefendingChange oversRestartsExploiting predictabilityBeing responsive to changes in the gameRecognising dangersRecognising potential opportunities
30 Modelling: How other teams play How we can play: possibilities open to usThe Flow of a gameSet specific challengesYou are 3 nil down how will you playYou are 3 -2 up how will you playYou were winning easily now it is a draw what can you do
31 Understanding 1Understanding the rules of the game, their interpretation and how they can influence play.Understanding of strategy, tactics and principles of playRecognition that what is tactically possible must be technically possible (Alan Launder in Play Practice)Understanding what roles and responsibilities individual players can have:in attack and defencewhen one hasn’t got the ballrestartschange oversHow your team can play - what options are open to you?Understanding where one’s own players are and where they likely to move towardsRecognising how the opposition play
32 Understanding 2Understanding the rules of the game, their interpretation and how they can influence play.Understanding of strategy, tactics and principles of playRecognition that what is tactically possible must be technically possible (Alan Launder in Play Practice)Understanding what roles and responsibilities individual players can have:in attack and defencewhen one hasn’t got the ballrestartschange oversHow your team can play - what options are open to you?Understanding where one’s own players are and where they likely to move towardsRecognising how the opposition play?
33 Game IntelligenceHow the team links together and copes with change-overs.Intelligent movement off the ballIntelligent positioningPutting into play specific roles and responsibilities during a gameUnderstanding the options available to one quickly and decisivelyThe capability and quality to recognise and adapt to situations on the field of play and deliver an intelligent responseAwareness of when and how to use acquired capacitiesExploiting predictability of other players as well as defensive and attacking responses.Keen nose for dangerImagination to sense new possibilities to attack or defendDiscipline:Putting game plan into actionin adversity and provocation or when game is going away from youLearning from game to gameRecognising, acknowledging and responding to flaws in one’s game
34 Stopping the play briefly to pose questions: Where were players a b and c in the last moveWhat options did you have when you did x y or zWhen player k had the ball where should you have been or where could you have been?
36 Game Forms Games that make it difficult to learn 2 v 2 3 v 3 4 v 4 More easy to learn and refine technique and acquire an understanding of the game2 v 1 – 3 v v 24 v 2 – 4 v 35 v 2 – 5 v v 4
37 Games Making What is a game? Relevance and significance of rules Restoring equality of playHow do you change a game?Progression: How do you make it more complex?Need for governance: controlling a game
39 PRACTISING Playfulness is an essential ingredient Encouraging young people to do more practice and practise in their own timePlayfulness is an essential ingredient
40 Self- Corrective Practising Benevolent curiosityWhy can’t I do that?What mistakes am I making?Why am I making mistakes? Expect to make mistakesWhy can’t I do xyz?Examining an ingrained practice and modulating it. Think like an artist or one who wants to develop their craft:How do I develop this?How can I make it better?Recognising what I need to work on?Ability to improvise and change what one is doing.Exploring how to organise your practice sessionsUse your ‘inner voice’ to capture what you are doing well (Scientific American June 2011)
42 ANY QUESTIONS? ANY QUESTIONS OVER TO YOU: Contact:
43 Xabi Alonso interview with Sid Lowe Guardian Saturday 12 November 2011 “Passion”, he says of course it’s necessary, but it’s more important to have footballing foundations, certainly when developing players.
44 Technique is vital but intelligence is fundamental You have to truly understand the game.Technique is vital but intelligence is fundamentalIt is interesting that Mancini in a 2010 Guardian interview spoke about Adam Johnson, saying that he was only young at 22 but he doesn’t understand the game yet. !!!!!!
45 Mancini former manager of Manchester City Speaking about Alan Johnson Mancini said that he is only young he doesn’t understand the game yet!!!!!!
46 Dennis Bergkamp- Stillness and Speed “There is thought behind every touch” referring to Mesut Özill at Arsenal. “They know exactly what to do, and in a way they don’t have to think for themselves any more. It is all done for them. That is over-coaching.” “Teach - creating time with a moving ball - to all young players ”