Presentation on theme: "Revisiting Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU) Dr. Len Almond."— Presentation transcript:
Revisiting Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU) Dr. Len Almond
Purpose of the Workshop o Revitalise interest in TGFU to inspire a rethinking of how we teach games o Encourage you to form your own study group to improve the teaching of games – use the internet
Jigsaw Puzzle Approach All of us (including young people) have o Inadequate knowledge base o Inadequate understanding o Inadequate tools for making connections in learning
Building the whole game
WHY TEACHING GAMES FOR UNDERSTANDING?
Consensus of collected observations on the way that games were being taught (1980) 1 o A large percentage of children achieving little success due to the emphasis on performance o The majority of school leavers leaving school “knowing” very little about games o The development of teacher/coach dependent performers
Consensus of collected observations on the way that games were being taught (1980) 2 o The production of supposedly “skilful” players who in fact possess inflexible techniques and poor decision making capacity o The failure to develop “thinking” spectators and “knowing” administrators at a time when games (and sport) are an important form of entertainment in the leisure industry
Our Starting Point o How do you translate a complex adult game into meaningful progressive units that enable a learner to play the game well? Use a curriculum framework
A Curriculum Framework o Representation o Exaggeration o Modification o Shaping To develop understanding and intelligent performance
Application to Games o Represent the adult game in its simplest game forms o Identify a starter game to ensure that the learners enjoy early success and develop confidence. o Exaggerate key components that you want to focus on in a specific game form to highlight the essential elements of play
Application to Games o Modify the demands of the game form to enable the student to play the game successfully. o Identify a logical and progressive sequence of these key components in developmental game forms o Shape the game forms
First papers on Understanding and Intelligent Action
Key Features of TGFU in 1979 o Understanding the Game o Intelligent Performance (Action in a game) o Game Centred
What is Understanding? How can we GRASP the structure of a game? How can we SEE possibilities? how can we MAKE SENSE of Games? HOW DO WE HELP YOUNG PEOPLE TO ACHIEVE THIS?
There are two aspects of Understanding o THE LEARNER - Understanding of game acquired by a learner (young person or adult) leading to intelligent performance o THE TEACHER - Understanding of games by the teacher (or coach) and secondly understanding the process by which they can promote understanding in learners (their pedagogy) so that they can demonstrate their intelligent performance (in their pedagogy)
Issues and Challenges to Physical Education
Clarifying some points Aim of a game- o to outscore (points/goals/runs) your opponent (s) by outwitting and outplaying them (strategy and tactics) Point of a game: o challenge an opponent (s) to play a game who will give you a good game This is why striving to win is NOT the sole point of the game? It is a primary rule o If winning was the only point, you would choose to play only easy players that you could beat.
Classification of Games o Invasion o Hand o Foot o Stick o Net/Wall o Divided o Shared o Striking/Fielding o Fan o Oval o Target o Opposed o Unopposed
Guiding Principles o Representation o Exaggeration o Modification o Shaping To develop understanding and intelligent performance
Modification Principles – to reduce the demands of the game Provide more appropriate: o Rules that fit the needs of children o Equipment for younger children that enable them to play and learn o Playing time o Playing areas and spaces Reduce o Number of players in a team o Body contact o The domination of a game by player ability or physique
Modification in Context o Create enabling environments – appropriate game forms/developmentally appropriate o Shaping Games o External focus o Learn in different/variable contexts o Jean Cote research o Develop technical capacities/prowess
5 v 5 Line Ball
o Technical prowess o Solving the puzzles that emerge in a game to outwit the opposition Game intelligence Applying what we have learnt in scenario practices to real game situations – being skilful Behavioural Flexibility Intelligent Performance
Simplifying the process of playing a game Challenging players to progressively develop their understanding of playing the game Stretching a players capabilities How can we SHAPE Games?
o Attacking o Defending o Change overs o Restarts o Exploiting predictability o Being responsive to changes in the game o Recognising dangers o Recognising potential opportunities We need to identify Scenarios
o How other teams play o How we can play: possibilities open to us o The Flow of a game o Set specific challenges o You are 3 nil down how will you play o You are 3 -2 up how will you play o You were winning easily now it is a draw what can you do Modelling:
o Understanding the rules of the game, their interpretation and how they can influence play. o Understanding of strategy, tactics and principles of play o Recognition that what is tactically possible must be technically possible (Alan Launder in Play Practice) o Understanding what roles and responsibilities individual players can have: o in attack and defence o when one hasn’t got the ball o restarts o change overs o How your team can play - what options are open to you? o Understanding where one’s own players are and where they likely to move towards o Recognising how the opposition play Understanding 1
o Understanding the rules of the game, their interpretation and how they can influence play. o Understanding of strategy, tactics and principles of play o Recognition that what is tactically possible must be technically possible (Alan Launder in Play Practice) o Understanding what roles and responsibilities individual players can have: o in attack and defence o when one hasn’t got the ball o restarts o change overs o How your team can play - what options are open to you? o Understanding where one’s own players are and where they likely to move towards o Recognising how the opposition play? Understanding 2
o How the team links together and copes with change-overs. o Intelligent movement off the ball o Intelligent positioning o Putting into play specific roles and responsibilities during a game o Understanding the options available to one quickly and decisively o The capability and quality to recognise and adapt to situations on the field of play and deliver an intelligent response o Awareness of when and how to use acquired capacities o Exploiting predictability of other players as well as defensive and attacking responses. o Keen nose for danger o Imagination to sense new possibilities to attack or defend o Discipline: o Putting game plan into action o in adversity and provocation or when game is going away from you o Learning from game to game o Recognising, acknowledging and responding to flaws in one’s game Game Intelligence
o Where were players a b and c in the last move o What options did you have when you did x y or z o When player k had the ball where should you have been or where could you have been? Stopping the play briefly to pose questions:
A NEW APPROACH TO LEARNING
Game Forms Games that make it difficult to learn 2 v 2 3 v 3 4 v 4 5 v 5 8 v 8 More easy to learn and refine technique and acquire an understanding of the game 2 v 1 – 3 v v 2 4 v 2 – 4 v 3 5 v 2 – 5 v v 4
Games Making What is a game? Relevance and significance of rules Restoring equality of play How do you change a game? Progression: How do you make it more complex? Need for governance: controlling a game
PRACTISING Encouraging young people to do more practice and practise in their own time Playfulness is an essential ingredient
o Benevolent curiosity o Why can’t I do that? o What mistakes am I making? o Why am I making mistakes? Expect to make mistakes o Why can’t I do xyz? o Examining an ingrained practice and modulating it. o Think like an artist or one who wants to develop their craft: o How do I develop this? o How can I make it better? o Recognising what I need to work on? o Ability to improvise and change what one is doing. o Exploring how to organise your practice sessions o Use your ‘inner voice’ to capture what you are doing well (Scientific American June 2011) Self- Corrective Practising
TGFU Special Interest Group
ANY QUESTIONS? ANY QUESTIONS OVER TO YOU: Contact:
Xabi Alonso interview with Sid Lowe Guardian Saturday 12 November 2011 “Passion”, he says of course it’s necessary, but it’s more important to have footballing foundations, certainly when developing players.
You have to truly understand the game. Technique is vital but intelligence is fundamental
Mancini former manager of Manchester City Speaking about Alan Johnson Mancini said that he is only young he doesn’t understand the game yet!!!!!!
Dennis Bergkamp- Stillness and Speed “There is thought behind every touch” referring to Mesut Özill at Arsenal. “They know exactly what to do, and in a way they don’t have to think for themselves any more. It is all done for them. That is over- coaching.” “Teach - creating time with a moving ball - to all young players ”