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Unit 4: GROWTH OF THE YOUNG NATION The Young Nation Grows Nationalism.

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1 Unit 4: GROWTH OF THE YOUNG NATION The Young Nation Grows Nationalism

2 Federalists vs. Republicans John Adams and the Federalists were in power after President Washington’s term. Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic – Republicans formed an opposition party because they were upset with the Alien & Sedition Acts and a “Quasi-War” with France.

3 NATIONALISM: Caring About the Whole Country…(not just your part) A. Judicial nationalism B. Nationalism in foreign policy C. Economic nationalism D. Manifest Destiny and Territorial expansion

4 A. JUDICIAL NATIONALISM: The Marshall Court Chief Justice Marshall sets several legal precedents that strengthened the power of the Supreme Court as an equal branch of the government. Marshall was a Federalist and believed in a strong central government.

5 The Marshall Court You have been elected the new Mayor of Ashburn. Before leaving office, the old mayor gave jobs to several of his political friends but the paperwork hasn’t made it to the personnel office yet. Should you 1) honor the jobs promised by the old mayor, or 2) cancel the jobs since they aren’t “officially” in the system yet?

6 The Marshall Court You have been elected the new Mayor of Ashburn. Before leaving office, the old mayor gave jobs to several of his political friends but the paperwork hasn’t made it to the personnel office yet. What are the possible negatives to denying these people their jobs? What are the possible positives to allowing them to take these jobs?

7 The Marshall Court You have been elected the new Mayor of Ashburn. Before leaving office, the old mayor gave jobs to several of his political friends but the paperwork hasn’t made it to the personnel office yet. Would it make a difference if the prospective employees had worked against you in the mayoral elections?

8 The Marshall Court Marbury vs Madison – The Midnight Judges – Can Congress tell the Court to enforce a duty of the executive branch? – The first time a law is declared unconstitutional. Judicial Review – The power of the Courts to review laws of Congress and decide whether they are constitutional.

9 The Marshall Court McCullough v Maryland – Maryland wanted to tax a branch of the National Bank (that was located in Maryland) – Does the Constitution even allow a National Bank at all? States can’t be more powerful than the national government Implied Powers – The Courts can interpret the Constitution to say what the government can and can’t do

10 The Marshall Court Gibbons v Ogden – Who gets to control the ferry business between NY & NJ? – The states wanted control. Federal control of Interstate Commerce – The national government has the final say in regulating commerce between the states.

11 The Marshall Court The Marshall Court set the foundation of the Supreme Court’s authority to mediate (resolve) disagreements between – branches of governments, – levels of government, – and competing business interests.

12 A. JUDICIAL NATIONALISM: The M&M Cases Marbury v. Madison established the principle of Judicial Review – the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional McCulloch v. Maryland established the principle of Implied Powers– the ability of the Supreme Court to determine national powers that aren’t in the Constitution, and to say that states can’t overrule national laws Gibbons v. Ogden said that the national government controls commerce between states

13 Lets the Alien & Sedition Acts expire Cuts all internal taxes Uses tariffs and sales of Western land to reduce the National Debt

14 Barbary pirates from North Africa attack US ships & demand tributes Jefferson sent the USS Constitution & orders a blockade The pirates sign a treaty which ends all tribute payments






20 I. RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812 Results of the war included:  Andrew Jackson as a war hero  End of the Federalist Party  “Era of Good Feelings”  Economic growth  A sense that the US was a strong, expanding nation  Nationalism

21 NATIONALISM SHAPES FOREIGN POLICY Nationalism was a priority for the growing US after the War of 1812 James Monroe was elected president in 1816 Monroe signed a treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory

22 NATIONALISM SHAPES FOREIGN POLICY Relations with Spain (1817- Florida belonged to Spain) United States sent Andrew Jackson and a small army down to the Georgia-Florida border to stop the Indian & outlaw raids Jackson is NOT supposed to attack the Spanish…. So, he invaded Florida. Adams ‑ Onis Treaty (1819): Spain gave up Florida for $5 million and a US promise to stay out of Texas

23 What is the main idea of this political cartoon?

24 B. THE MONROE DOCTRINE Other European powers were planning to (re)take their colonies in the Caribbean and Latin America. In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t mess with the Western Hemisphere (The Monroe Doctrine)

25 The American continents should not be considered for future colonization by any European powers. Nations in the Western Hemisphere were just different from nations in Europe, (republics, not monarchies). The US would see any attempt by Europe to take any country in the Western Hemisphere as a threat to its own peace and safety The United States would not interfere in European affairs. Monroe Doctrine

26 THE AGE OF JACKSON Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy

27 Andrew Jackson: Hero or Villain? Born in 1767 in NC Orphaned at 13 – no formal education Emotional, Arrogant and Passionate - always ready to duel Defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 & the British at New Orleans in 1815 Took Florida and Claimed it for the US in 1819 Loved by his soldiers who called him “Old Hickory” Distrusted the rich and powerful

28 The Election of 1824: “The Corrupt Bargain” Jackson ran in a 4-way race for Pres in 1824 (all the same party!) Even though Jackson won the popular vote, he didn’t receive a majority of electoral votes. Sent to the House of Reps to choose the President Henry Clay gives his support to JQ Adams and the House chooses Adams as President Adams names Clay Sec. of State 2 weeks later….hmmmm AJ is furious: The Corrupt Bargain

29 ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON Jackson, hero of the common man, won election in 1828 in part because the right to vote had been expanded to more citizens In the 1824 election, won by John Quincy Adams, 350,000 white males voted In 1828, over 1,000,000 white males voted in the nastiest campaign ever. Many of the new voters supported Jackson who also won re-election in 1832

30 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY As part of his political philosophy, Jackson sought to grant political power to the common people: Age of the Common Man Jackson rewarded his own supporters with government jobs. This is called The Spoils System. Jackson gave away many jobs to his friends and political allies and fired the rich and powerful elites.

31 “The age of the common man” was characterized by heightened emphasis on equality in the political process for adult white males (rich white guys) the rise of interest group politics and sectional issues a changing style of campaigning – political parties tried to appeal to “folks” (free food, kissing babies) increased voter participation. Politics started to look like what we know today. Do you think these changes were good or bad for the nation?

32 INDIAN REMOVAL ACT - 1830 Jackson’s Native American Policy – Indian Removal Act of 1830 – Forced resettlement of Native Americans (Cherokee and others) from their homes in the SE to Oklahoma and lands west of the Mississippi River – Bureau of Indian Affairs created to oversee resettlement – Many forced onto reservations The Cherokee claimed the relocation was wrong and it went to the supreme court. Marshall ruled in favor of the Cherokee Tribe. Jackson’s response – “Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it”


34 Forced relocation of the Cherokee tribe. Before the journey was over ¼ of the tribe perished. – Reflected Jackson’s personal apathy toward Native Americans

35 TARIFF OF “ABOMINATION” In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816 Southerners called the 1828 Tariff, “a Tariff of Abominations,” and blamed it for economic problems in the South THE NORTH THE SOUTH TARIFFS

36 NULLIFICATION THREAT In an attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John Calhoun (Jackson’s VP from S.C.), developed the Theory of Nullification South Carolinians argued that states could nullify the Tariff of 1832 and other acts of Congress if they found them to be unconstitutional. Nullification would declare the law void within the state. Jackson threatened to send federal troops to SC

37 JACKSON’S BANK WAR Jackson opposed the National Bank – run by the rich and powerful. He vetoed its charter and withdrew all the federal $$. He created Pet Banks run by Dems and his friends Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president His opponents formed a new party – the Whigs

38 PANIC OF 1837 In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency He inherited problems from the “Bank Wars” Jackson’s Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841

39 Jackson’s Legacy: Hero or Villain? The GOODMore democratic involvement in Government Looked out for the interests of the common man Strong Executive Power Massive Voter Turnout Sparked Re-Creation of 2 Party System The BADThe Spoils System Banking Instability Excessive Check of the Supreme Court Greater Sectionalism –Result of Split with Calhoun The UGLYNative American Policy Trail of Tears

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