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Hoover, FDR, and the Great Depression. Herbert Hoover and Voluntarism.

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Presentation on theme: "Hoover, FDR, and the Great Depression. Herbert Hoover and Voluntarism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hoover, FDR, and the Great Depression

2 Herbert Hoover and Voluntarism

3 Herbert Hoover  Grew up in a poor family in a small Iowa town  Trained as a mining engineer  Ran U.S. Food Administration during WWI  Promoted government-business partnerships  Elected President as a Republican in 1928

4 “Voluntarism” (or “Volunteerism”)  People are responsible for helping themselves  No direct federal government aid for the poor  Communities should work together to help the poor  Keep the budget balanced – no deficit spending  Prosperity “trickles down” from businesses to everyone else

5 Hoover’s Policies – The Early Years  Asked business not to cut jobs or wages  Reduced taxes to boost consumer demand  Urged the wealthy to give to charity  Asked state government to increase aid for the poor  Constant optimism – tried to restore confidence in the economy

6 Problem: this didn’t work  Unemployment and homelessness continued to rise  Local governments and charities ran out of money  Hoover became increasingly unpopular  Hoovervilles = shanty towns  Hoover Houses = cardboard boxes  Hoover Heaters = campfires

7 Hoover’s Policies – The Later Years  Reconstruction Finance Corporation  Created 1932  Provided loans to banks, railroads, big businesses  Exemplified trickle-down economics  Hoover Dam  Massive public works project on the Colorado River  Created jobs in a depressed area

8 The Bonus Army  After WWI, Congress promised cash payments to veterans in 1945  The Depression left many veterans unemployed  Summer 1932: “Bonus Army” of 15,000 veterans marched to Washington, D.C., demanding immediate payment

9 The Bonus Army, continued  Bonus Army camps out in Washington  July 1932: Hoover orders evacuation of Bonus Army  July 28:U.S. Army forcibly evicts Bonus ArmyU.S. Army forcibly evicts Bonus Army  Negative publicity destroyed Hoover’s re-election campaign

10 The 1932 Election  Why would Hoover be unpopular?  Economy still hasn’t recovered  People think Hoover hasn’t done enough  Bonus Army is terrible publicity  What do you think people are looking for?  More decisive, drastic action  Someone who understands them

11 FDR and the New Deal

12 Franklin Delano Roosevelt  Born into a wealthy, well- connected New York family  Disabled by polio in his forties  Elected president as a Democrat in 1932  Promised a “New Deal” to solve the Depression

13 “ ” The country needs, and unless I mistake its temper, the country demands bold, persistent experimentation. It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something. -FDR, 1932 How does this differ from Hoover’s philosophy?

14 Result: The New Deal  Date:  Definition: series of ambitious federal programs with the goal of ending the Depression  Significance  Helped end the Depression and reduce unemployment  Radically expanded the government’s role in economic life

15 Principles of the New Deal  Relief – help the needy  Recovery – end the Depression  Reform – change the economy so that the Depression can’t happen again

16 Fireside Chats  Date:  Series of radio addresses by FDR on national issues and proposed laws  Significance  Helped build support for New Deal programs  Encouraged Americans to feel closer to the President

17 Fireside Chats  How does FDR use the radio to gain the trust of his listeners?

18 New Deal Policies  Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)  Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)  Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)  Federal Housing Administration (FHA)  National Recovery Administration (NRA)  Public Works Administration (PWA)  Works Progress Administration (WPA)  Social Security Administration (SSA)


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