3CLAUSE AS EXCHANGE Types of speech role: GIVING [inviting to receive] Simultaneously with its organization as a message, the clause is also organized as an interactive event involving speaker/ writer, and audience.Types of speech role: GIVING [inviting to receive]DEMANDING [inviting to give]Thus an act of speaking might ppropriately be called AN INTERACT in which ”giving” implies receiving and “demanding” implies giving in response.
4TWO VARIABLES DEFINING THE FOUR PRIMARY SPEECH FUNCTIONS OFFER, COMMAND, STATEMENT, QUESTION If you say something with the aim of getting someone to do something for you, the exchange commodity is strictly NON VERBAL.What is being demanded is an OBJECT or an ACTION, and language is brought in to help the process along.If you say something with the aim of getting someone to tell you something, what is being demanded is INFORMATIONINFORMATIONGOODS & SERVICES
5PRIMARY SPEECH FUNCTIONS commodityexchangedrole in goods & services informationexchange“offer” “statement”giving would you like he’s giving her the this teapot? teapot“command” “question”demanding give me that teapot! what is he giving her?
7SEMANTIC FUNCTION OF A CLAUSE IN THE EXCHANGE OF INFORMATIONIN THE EXCHANGE OF GOODS & SERVICESPROPOSALPROPOSITION
8M O O D E L E M E N T SMay be any nominal group.If it is a personal pronoun, it is simply repeated each time.If it is anything else, then after the first occurence it is replaced by the personal pronoun corresponding to it.One of a small number of verbal operators expressing TENSE or MODALITY.In some instances, the Finite element and the lexical verb are “fused” into a single word.This happens when the verb is in simple past or simple present (tense), active (voice), positive (polarity) and neutral (contrast).SUBJECTFINITE
9SUBJECT and FINITE IN THE BODY OF THE CLAUSE AND THE TAG example the duke has given away that teapot hasn’t hethe duke is giving away that teapot isn’t hethe duke did give away that teapot didn’t hethe duke didn’t give away that teapot did he
10MOOD STRUCTURE DECLARATIVE the duke has given that teapot away Subject Finite Mood Residue
11MOOD STRUCTURE YES / NO INTERROGATIVE has the duke given that teapot away Finite Subject Mood Residue
12FINITE VERBAL OPERATORS PAST did, was had, used to PRESENT does, is has FUTURE will, shall would, shouldLOW can, may could, might MEDIAN will,would, should is to, was to HIGH must, ought to need, has to, had toFINITE VERBAL OPERATORSTEMPORALMODAL
13VARIATION of SUBJECT in DECLARATIVE CLAUSES the duke has given my aunt that teapot hasn’t he my aunt has been given that teapot by the duke hasn’t she that teapot has been given my aunt by the duke hasn’t it Subject Finite Finite Subject Mood Residue Mood tagVARIATION of SUBJECT in DECLARATIVE CLAUSES
14STRUCTURE OF THE RESIDUE Sister Susie ‘s sewing shirts for soldiers. Subject Finite Predicator Complement Adjunct Mood ResidueSTRUCTURE OF THE RESIDUE
15The function of the Predicator is fourfold. It specifies: 1 The function of the Predicator is fourfold. It specifies: 1. time reference 2. various other aspects and phases like seeming, trying, hoping 3. the voice (active/ passive) 4. the process (action, event, material, mental, relation)PREDICATOR
16A Complement is an element within the Residue that has the potential of being Subject but is not. It is typically realized by a nominal group. the duke gave my aunt that teapot Predicator Complement 1 Complement 2 Mood ResidueCOMPLEMENT
17An Adjunct is an element that has not got the potential of being Subject. It is typically realized by an adverbial group or a prepositional phrase. e.g.: my aunt was given that teapot yesterday by the duke adverbial prepositional group phrase AdjunctADJUNCT
18A Conjunctive Adjunct tends to occur at points in the clause which are significant for textual organization , which means at some boundary or other: 1. clause initial [part of the textual theme]: However, such men don’t make good husbands. 2. clause final [afterthought]: Such men don’t make good husbands, however. 3. between Theme and Rheme: Such men, however, don’t make good husbands. 4. between Mood and Residue: Such men don’t, however, make good husbands. Conjunctive Adjuncts have no function in the ckause as exchange.CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCT
19MODAL ADJUNCTSThere are 2 groups of Modal Adjuncts in terms of their place in the mood structure: 1. MOOD ADJUNCTS specifically relating to the finite verbal operators, expressing probability, usuality, obligation, inclination or time, and intensity. 2. COMMENT ADJUNCTS which tend to occur thematically, finally, between the Theme and Rheme, or between Mood and Residue; and when medial, they are typically associated with a boundary between information units.
20They typically occur: a. next to the Finite. b. before the Finite. c They typically occur: a. next to the Finite. b. before the Finite. c. after the Finite. Examples: She probably hasn’t arrived. He doesn’t always hear. You certainly must go. I’d gladly help. She’s already arrived.MOOD ADJUNCTS
22CLAUSE WITH CIRCUMSTANTIAL, MODAL AND CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCTS unfortunately however he can’t usuallyComment Conjunctive Subject Finite MoodAdjunct Adjunct AdjunctMoodhear clearly on the telephonepresumption prep.phrasePredicator Adjunct AdjunctResidueCLAUSE WITH CIRCUMSTANTIAL, MODAL AND CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCTS
23WH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE who killed Cock RobinSubject/ WH- (past) kill ComplementFinite PredicatorMood ResidueWH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSEWH- element conflated with Subject
24WH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE whose little boy are you Complement / WH- Finite Subject Residue MoodWH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSEWH- elementconflated with Complement
25WH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE what have the elephants done to the pier Complement/ WH- Finite Subject Predicator Adjunct Residue MoodWH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSEWH- clause having question related to the process
26how neatly he spreads his claws Adjunct / WH- Subject ‘[present] spread’ Complement Finite Predicator Residue MoodEXCLAMATIVE CLAUSE
27don’t you believe it Finite Subject Predicator Complement Mood Residue IMPERATIVE CLAUSEScome into my parlour will you Predicator Adjunct Finite Subject Residue Mood tagdon’t you believe it Finite Subject Predicator Complement Mood Residue
28POLARITY AND MODALITY MODALITY POLARITY the choice between positive and negative: is – isn’t do – don’t does – doesn’t can – can’t has – hasn’t etc.MODALITYPROPOSITION information: statement questionPROPOSAL goods & services: offer command