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Prof. francien herlen tomasowa, ph.d.. CLAUSE AS EXCHANGE INTERPERSONAL MEANING.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. francien herlen tomasowa, ph.d.. CLAUSE AS EXCHANGE INTERPERSONAL MEANING."— Presentation transcript:

1 prof. francien herlen tomasowa, ph.d.


3 Simultaneously with its organization as a message, the clause is also organized as an interactive event involving speaker/ writer, and audience. Types of speech role: GIVING [inviting to receive] DEMANDING [inviting to give] Thus an act of speaking might ppropriately be called AN INTERACT in which ” giving ” implies receiving and “ demanding ” implies giving in response.

4 TWO VARIABLES DEFINING THE FOUR PRIMARY SPEECH FUNCTIONS OFFER, COMMAND, STATEMENT, QUESTION If you say something with the aim of getting someone to do something for you, the exchange commodity is strictly NON VERBAL. What is being demanded is an OBJECT or an ACTION, and language is brought in to help the process along. If you say something with the aim of getting someone to tell you something, what is being demanded is INFORMATION GOODS & SERVICES INFORMATION

5 PRIMARY SPEECH FUNCTIONS commodity exchanged role in goods & services information exchange “offer” “statement” giving would you like he’s giving her the this teapot? teapot “command” “question” demanding give me that teapot! what is he giving her?

6 SPEECH FUNCTIONS & RESPONSES initiation expected discretionary response alternative goods & services give offer acceptancerejection demandcommand undertakingrefusal information: givestatement acknowledgement contradiction demandquestion answerdisclaimer


8 One of a small number of verbal operators expressing TENSE or MODALITY. In some instances, the Finite element and the lexical verb are “fused” into a single word. This happens when the verb is in simple past or simple present ( tense ), active ( voice ), positive ( polarity ) and neutral ( contrast ). May be any nominal group. If it is a personal pronoun, it is simply repeated each time. If it is anything else, then after the first occurence it is replaced by the personal pronoun corresponding to it. MOODELEMENTSMOODELEMENTS SUBJECTFINITE

9 SUBJECT and FINITE IN THE BODY OF THE CLAUSE AND THE TAG example Subject Finite the duke has given away that teapot hasn’t he the duke is giving away that teapot isn’t he the duke did give away that teapot didn’the the duke didn’t give away that teapot did he

10 the duke has given that teapot away SubjectFinite MoodResidue MOOD STRUCTURE DECLARATIVE

11 has the duke given that teapot away FiniteSubject Mood Residue MOOD STRUCTURE YES / NO INTERROGATIVE

12 LOW can, may could, might MEDIAN will,would, should is to, was to HIGH must, ought to need, has to, had to PAST did, was had, used to PRESENT does, is has FUTURE will, shall would, should TEMPORAL MODAL FINITE VERBAL OPERATORS

13 the duke has given my aunt that teapot hasn’t he my aunt has been given that teapot by the duke hasn’t she that teapot has been given my aunt by the duke hasn’t it Subject Finite FiniteSubject Mood Residue Mood tag VARIATION of SUBJECT in DECLARATIVE CLAUSES

14 Sister Susie ‘s sewing shirts for soldiers. Subject Finite Predicator Complement Adjunct Mood Residue STRUCTURE OF THE RESIDUE

15 The function of the Predicator is fourfold. It specifies: 1. time reference 2. various other aspects and phases like seeming, trying, hoping 3. the voice (active/ passive) 4. the process (action, event, material, mental, relation) PREDICATOR

16 A Complement is an element within the Residue that has the potential of being Subject but is not. It is typically realized by a nominal group. the duke gave my aunt that teapot PredicatorComplement 1 Complement 2 Mood Residue COMPLEMENT

17 An Adjunct is an element that has not got the potential of being Subject. It is typically realized by an adverbial group or a prepositional phrase. e.g.: my aunt was given that teapot yesterday by the duke adverbial prepositional groupphrase Adjunct ADJUNCT

18 A Conjunctive Adjunct tends to occur at points in the clause which are significant for textual organization, which means at some boundary or other: 1. clause initial [part of the textual theme]: However, such men don’t make good husbands. 2. clause final [afterthought]: Such men don’t make good husbands, however. 3. between Theme and Rheme : Such men, however, don’t make good husbands. 4. between Mood and Residue : Such men don’t, however, make good husbands. Conjunctive Adjuncts have no function in the ckause as exchange. CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCT

19 There are 2 groups of Modal Adjuncts in terms of their place in the mood structure: 1. MOOD ADJUNCTS specifically relating to the finite verbal operators, expressing probability, usuality, obligation, inclination or time, and intensity. 2. COMMENT ADJUNCTS which tend to occur thematically, finally, between the Theme and Rheme, or between Mood and Residue; and when medial, they are typically associated with a boundary between information units. MODAL ADJUNCTS

20 They typically occur:a. next to the Finite. b. before the Finite. c. after the Finite. Examples: She probably hasn’t arrived. He doesn’t always hear. You certainly must go. I’d gladly help. She’s already arrived. MOOD ADJUNCTS

21 certainly, surely, probably, perhaps, maybe, possibly, definitely, positively always, often, usually, regularly, typically, occasionally, seldom, rarely, ever, never, once evidently, apparently, presumably, clearly, no doubt, obviously, of course gladly, willingly, readily yet, still, already, once, soon, just quite, almost, nearly, totally, entirely, utterly, completely, literally, absolutely, scarcely, hardly just, simply, ever, only, really, actually probability/ obligation usuality presumption inclination time degree intensity Principal Items Functioning as Mood Adjuncts

22 unfortunately however he can’t usually Comment Conjunctive SubjectFiniteMood Adjunct AdjunctAdjunct Mood hear clearly on the telephone presumption prep.phrase Predicator Adjunct Adjunct Residue CLAUSE WITH CIRCUMSTANTIAL, MODAL AND CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCTS

23 who killedCock Robin Subject/ WH- (past)killComplement FinitePredicator MoodResidue WH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE WH- element conflated with Subject

24 whose little boyareyou Complement / WH-FiniteSubject ResidueMood WH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE WH- element conflated with Complement

25 what have the elephants done to the pier Complement/ WH- Finite Subject Predicator Adjunct Residue Mood WH- INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE WH- clause having question related to the process

26 how neatly he spreads his claws Adjunct / WH- Subject ‘[present] spread’ Complement Finite Predicator Residue Mood EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSE

27 come into my parlour will you Predicator Adjunct Finite Subject Residue Mood tag don’t you believe it Finite Subject Predicator Complement Mood Residue IMPERATIVE CLAUSES

28 POLARITY the choice between positive and negative: is – isn’t do – don’t does – doesn’t can – can’t has – hasn’t etc. PROPOSAL goods & services: offer command MODALITY PROPOSITION information: statement question POLARITY AND MODALITY

29 God Bless you !

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