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1 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 CryptoAuthentication™ Real. Easy.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 CryptoAuthentication™ Real. Easy."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 CryptoAuthentication™ Real. Easy.

2 2 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Cryptography Introduction Use Cases for Hardware Security Devices Authentication, Trusted Identification, Secure boot, Download Protection, Anti-cloning, Consumption tracking, and more Crypto Authentication Product Portfolio ATSHA204(A) ATAES132 ATECC108(A) FIPS certified Embedded Systems Trusted Platform Module Agenda

3 3 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Does Security Matter? What Happened? Hackers loaded unauthorized code into system Common system architecture to store program in Flash and let users download updated versions from the web How Can Atmel Help? Put ATSHA204 in system to enable firmware validation capability upon any software download or update event

4 4 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Does Security Matter?

5 5 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Does Security Matter? What Happened? Hackers exploited bug in crypto code Hard for every system designer to be a cryptographic expert, open-source crypto code may be imperfect How Can Atmel Help? Add ATSHA204 for: Secure key storage Hardware implementation of algorithm Random number generator

6 6 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Concepts of Cryptographic Algorithms

7 7 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Encryption vs. Authentication Encrypt Text Decrypt Text VerifySign Cipher Text Signature Text Authentication Encryption Only Receiver can see the text in the clear Receiver can determine identity of sender, make sure text wasn’t changed

8 8 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Hashing vs. Encryption Data can be scrambled and unscrambled Provides confidentiality so that data can only be understood by authorized users Common algorithms: AES, DES, RSA, ECC Data is scrambled/compressed into a fixed length digest Constant input always generates the same digest Can be used to verify the identity of the sender Can verify the integrity of the message - that it hasn’t been changed Usually SHA, but AES can be used as a hash algorithm Encryption (2 Way) Hash (1 Way)

9 9 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 M Challenge System B KEY SECRET SHA256 Response System B Compares the Hash of M with the Response to verify the shared Secret Symmetric Authentication Notice System A and System B MUST Share Knowledge of a Secret Key All Systems with Secret Key can create and verify System A KEY SECRET SHA256

10 10 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 KEY PRIVATE Sign M Verify KEY PUBLIC Signature Verifies Message with the Signature and Public Key of the Signer Message Asymmetric Authentication The Signer has a unique Private Key Only the System with the Private Key can Sign the message All Systems can verify the signature Verify uses only public data 1.Message to Sign 2.Signature generated by the private key 3.Public Key associated with the private key

11 11 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Hardware Security System Use Cases

12 12 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Authentication Mobile devices: Chargers, batteries, adapters, speakers, keyboards, etc. Industrial devices: Sensors IP Protection Prevent copying/cloning of system and software, authenticate phone/tablet software to OEM hardware, manage licensing revenue Secure Communication Wireless Systems, Wired Systems (PLC, Ethernet,...), Trusted Operation Secure boot to ensure that system works as desired – medical, industrial, metering Encrypted downloads: ensure OEM approved software CryptoAuthentication

13 13 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Symmetric* Authentication Example Symmetric Authentication occurs when host verifies that its key and the client’s key match. MCU Not Verified Verified Response Challenge SecureStorage Host Client HASH Function (SHA) HASH VALUE (Digest) =? Random Number    *With symmetric authentication the host and client always have the same secret key. Verify

14 14 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 The authentication of ECC108 is done in two phases First Phase: Verify Certificate Signature Is the device certificate signed by my trusted certificate chain? Perform ECDSA verify (signer public key, signature, digest of cert) After First Phase, you can trust the device public key Second Phase: Verify Private Key Send random message to be signed by the device private key Perform ECDSA verify (device public key, signature, random message) Asymmetric Authentication Phases

15 15 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Host requests & receives certificate from client Host extracts signature, client’s public key, & certificate data. Then hashes certificate data to create a digest. Host runs ECDSA Verify Calculation on its public key, digest & client’s signature. If it succeeds then client’s public key is verified, and can go to phase 2. Asymmetric Authentication + Host Public Key       Digest Function Verify Public Key Certificate Data Phase 1

16 16 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Host creates random number challenge Host sends challenge to client. Client uses ECDSA engine to sign random number with client’s private key. Client sends signature to host Host runs ECDSA Verify using client public key verified in phase 1, random number, & new signature from client. If it succeeds then the Private Key is verified. Asymmetric Authentication ATECC108           Verify Private Key Phase 2

17 17 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Asymmetric Authentication Host MCU Accessory (Client) ATECC108 Random Number Generator ECDSA Signature Engine Fail Success Challenge Signature Random Challenge ECDSA Verify Calculation Host Public Key Fail Success ECDSA Verify Calculation Accessory Certificate        Digest Function Signature Client Public Key  The two phases of ECDSA put together Certificate Data Client Private Key Client Public Key Verify Public Key Verify Private Key

18 18 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 User Identity – Validate that a user is who he says he is without having to reveal the user’s secret. Authenticate serial numbers Sensor Location – Identify which sensor, where it’s located, validate source of the control message Data Integrity – Verify that the message (file/packet/data) hasn’t been compromised when in transit/storage Consumables – Maintain OEM revenue flow (razor/razor blade business model). Ensure that device are not used beyond their expected life Spare Parts – Verify only factory genuine parts are used Authentication Can Mean Many Things

19 19 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Secure Communication Secure Session Key Generation ●Session Key Generation for Symmetric-key Based Systems ●Tamper-resistant Hardware Security IC Provides Root of Trust ●Achieve Both Machine Authentication and Secure Communications

20 20 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Firmware IP protection - Method of Protection Concept: Software Communicates with Security Device Send challenge message to security chip, check response for correctness Only systems with properly programmed security devices will work correctly Goal: Increase Cost of Attack! If properly implemented, each check in the code must be found and removed separately Require a new and separate attack with each revision of program

21 21 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Security Devices Can Help Prevent Piracy Software communicates with security device Send challenge message to security chip, check response for correctness Only system with properly programmed security device will work correctly Multiple checks in software 10, 100, 1000 – as many as are practical Different values for each check Be creative! Use diverse methods to send challenge and deal with response Some methods should include fixed challenge- responses, some should include random challenges and compiled in keys Change methods with each software update Use all key slots, check different set of slots with each version

22 22 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Simple Example // 0x1234 is challenge to ATSHA204* // 0xABCD is correct response from ATSHA if (sendChallenge(Slot0, 0x1234) != 0xABCD) { error(“System Fault”); exit(-1); }...  ATSHA204 in every system has same secret in Slot0  Practically infinite number of possible challenges  Only one correct response for each challenge  Each system could optionally have unique challenge- response pairs compiled in This code construct may be easy to find and remove via reverse compilation *These examples show the challenge and response as a 16 bit integer for clarity and simplicity. They will actually be 32 byte arrays for ATSHA204.

23 23 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™ /14/2012 Select Insert > Header & Footer > Type Title in Footer field CLIENT MICRO =? Authentication Verified Yes Response Challenge ad00 10e0 d467 25de 8c60 8f60 5b93 5f7e 2354 a436 cb f18d 03b2 d911 81cf ad00 10e0 d467 25de 8c60 8f60 5b93 5f7e 2354 a436 cb f18d 03b2 d911 81cf SHA256 Secret Key ATSHA204 RESPONS E CHALLENG E Anti-Piracy Example Technique using Fixed Challenge Response But what if the authentication verification answer is no? 68b1 282b 91de 2c05 4c36 629c b8dd 447f 12f0 96d3 e3c dc

24 24 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Slightly More Complicated Example // 0x1234 is challenge to ATSHA204 // 0xABCD is correct response from ATSHA int resp, chal = 0x1200; chal += 0x0034; resp = sendChallenge(Slot0, chal); answer += resp; answer -= 0xABCD;...  Vary the constructs  Use state variables as the challenge  Use responses as part of calculation, jump vector, etc. An attacker with a logic analyzer on the bus may be able to record all the correct responses

25 25 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Microcontroller ATSHA204 Secure Key Storage SHA-256 Hash Engine Do They Match ?  No Yes Challenge Response   Challenges Compiled into Software  Intermediate Keys Compiled into Software Date, Time, RNG, etc. SHA-256 Hash Engine SHA-256 SW      Unique Nonce   Even More Complicated Example Intermediate Keys Can’t be attacked with a logic analyzer

26 26 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Measures that could be taken if the system fails the validation process Send Error message Blacklist a device Make a device in-operable Have code do something unexpected or incorrect (ex. Cell phone always dials wrong numbers) Limit/Reduce functionality of device Display message stating that the required (legitimate) software must be downloaded Some other creative idea

27 27 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 No Limits to Programmer’s Creativity! Multiple checks in software, each different 10, 100, 1000 – as many as are practical Change methods with each software update Program multiple slots, each version works differently Use all the key slots & methods Vary the slots used with date, revision number Make sure that some methods require runtime analysis Chain or combine one response as the next challenge Use response as part of a jump vector or table pointer Consider web-based system enablement Server can use ATSHA204 dongle for secure checks ATSHA204 includes password handler May provide useful capability in some situations Maintain blacklist of invalid serial numbers Can be updated with software revisions and so on…

28 28 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 None MU MU + CC FC MU + CC + PA + CM MU + CC + PA + CM + DC CC + PA + CM + DC + RC CC + PA + CM + DC + RC + TK CC + PA + CM + DC + RC + TK + RK Increased Protection Increase the Complexity RK=Rolled Key TK= Move the Challenge to Temp Key RC= Random Challenge Response DC=Dynamic Challenge on the Stack CM=Code Misdirection PA= Periodic Authentications CC= Chaining Challenge Responses MU=Multiple Unordered Fixed Chall/Resp FC =Fixed Challenge Response

29 29 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 CryptoAuthentication products

30 30 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Multiple Serial I/O options Secured EEPROM ECC / SHA /AES Cryptographic Engine Monotonic Counters High Quality Random Number Generator Unique Serial Number Tamper-hardened Hardware Boundary Optimized for high security, ease-of-use and low cost Crypto Architecture Attackers cannot see what’s inside Standards based crypto engine between interface and memory Isolates any attack to a single device I/O options simplify design in Tracks number of authentications Required for every crypto protocol Secured EEPROM for keys & data

31 31 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Hardware Security Features Strong Multi-Level HW Security: Active shield over entire chip All memories internally encrypted Data independent crypto execution Randomized math operations Internal state consistency checking Voltage tampers, isolated power rail Internal clock generation Secure test methods, no JTAG No debug probe points, no test pads No package or die identification Designed to Defend Against: Microprobe attacks Timing attacks Emissions attacks Faults, invalid command attacks Power cycling, clock glitches Partial personalization attacks Standard Devices ATMEL CryptoAuthentication Cannot achieve this level of security with software alone!

32 32 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 ATSHA204 Standard SHA256 hash algorithm Secure key storage (16 slots) Turnkey authentication, validation, key derivation, password checking Functionality for both Host and Client configurations ATECC108 Full 256-bit Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) No requirement for secure storage in the host system Fast execution reduces code and performance requirements Complete compatibility with ATSHA204 ATAES132 Secure storage for both data (32Kb) and keys (16 slots) Rich command set to support every system architecture Drop-in compatibility with industry standard 32Kb Serial EEPROM High Level Device Comparison World Class Hardware Security to Complement Every Micro

33 33 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Where to Use ATECC108, ATSHA204 or ATAES132 Customers Who Are Most Price Sensitive – Use ATSHA204 Host hardware cannot be easily changed – Use ATECC108 Compatibility with Serial EEPROM is a benefit All Three Parts use same packages & pinout when configured for I2C Systems that need full software compatibility or SPI – Use ATAES132 All components of system come from same OEM – Use ATSHA204 Systems w/many partners, complex ecosystem – Use ATECC108 Need to Secure up to 4Kbytes of data for Fingerprints, Calibration data, Firmware blocks, etc.. – Use ATAES132

34 34 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Standards-Based Security Targeting OS-Based Embedded Systems

35 35 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 What is a TPM? TPM is a Hardware-based Key Storage device providing a “Secure Vault” for any Embedded System Four Primary Capabilities Platform Integrity Authentication Secure Communication IP Protection Asymmetric Algorithm (RSA) Supports 512, 1024, & 2048 keys SHA-1 Hashing & HMAC Industry Standard Specification Trusted Computing Group In every commercial PC, most servers

36 36 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 TPM … Way Beyond PCs Anything on a network! LTE base stations Servers Multifunction printers Gambling / gaming machines Access points Smart appliances with network connectivity Test & measurement devices Mobile payment terminals Inventory control terminals

37 37 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Support Tools

38 38 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 ACES Demonstration/Evaluation Software ACES Demo Evaluate Educate Design A platform to exercise CryptoAuthentication devices Demos & Wizards to visualize end uses Learn the memory and commands of CryptoAuthentication devices See properly formatted commands for firmware Stores and reloads configurations Works with any CryptoAuthentication kit

39 39 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Stand alone Library for Atmel CryptoAuthentication Devices ATSHA204 VELOPMENTLIBRARY.aspxhttp://www.atmel.com/tools/CRYPTOAUTHENTICATIONATSHA204DE VELOPMENTLIBRARY.aspx ATECC108 opment_Library.aspxhttp://www.atmel.com/tools/CryptoAuthentication_ATECC108_Devel opment_Library.aspx ATAES132 VELOPMENTLIBRARY.aspxhttp://www.atmel.com/tools/CRYPTOAUTHENTICATIONATAES132DE VELOPMENTLIBRARY.aspx CryptoAuthentication Tools and Support

40 40 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Logic Analyzer Saleae Low cost Logic Analyzer with support for both I2C and Atmel’s Signal Wire Interface (SWI) App note available at: Debugging-Saleae-Logic-Analyzer-ApplicationNote.pdf Built In Atmel Protocol Analyzer

41 41 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Application Notes ATSHA204 Authentication Modes ATSHA204 Single-Wire and I2C Seamless Debugging Using Saleae Logic Analyzer Secure Session Encryption Key Exchange with ATSHA204 Secure Boot Simplified Designing with CryptoAuthentication Client Devices Application Brief: Analyzing Strength of Security CryptoAuthentication Tools and Support The ATECC108 supports all the functionality of the ATSHA204

42 42 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 AT88CK490 CryptoAuthentication Demonstration & Evaluation Kit ATSHA204 ATECC108 ATAES132 Software: Atmel Crypto Evaluation Studio (ACES)

43 43 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Development Tools Reduce Time to Market Easily connect to any AVR or ARM development platform 100% support for Atmel MCUs and development kits Complete Development Environment Source code libraries and example code available for free at Libraries fully tested for AVR micros ACES Software Exploration tool Ordering Codes based on package type Evaluate and Develop with AT88CK101STK AT88CK101- ()CryptoAuthentication Development Kit * AT88CK101STK8-MAH (UDFN) shown

44 44 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 Start sending commands to the TPM immediately Includes… TPM SMBus Module Mounted on AT90USBKey Board Standard A to Mini B USB device cable Mini A to receptacle A USB host adapter USB flash drive Alternate 9V battery supply cable Introducing Atmel’s Embedded TPM Starter Kit! Flash Drive includes Sample Code & All Necessary Documentation!

45 45 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 The AT88CK9000 Board is design for stand-alone secure programming of CryptoAuthentication family. The board support a XML configuration file generated by ACES and is securely stored within the programmer board. For large annual volumes, contact Atmel for other solutions. Ordering Codes based on package type CryptoAuthentication Low Volume Personalization AT88CK9000-xxx

46 46 © 2014 Atmel Confidential CryptoAuthentication™2014 © 2014 Atmel Corporation. All rights reserved. Atmel ®, Atmel logo and combinations thereof, Enabling Unlimited Possibilities ®, and others are registered trademarks or trademarks of Atmel Corporation or its subsidiaries. Other terms and product names may be trademarks of others. Disclaimer: The information in this document is provided in connection with Atmel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property right is granted by this document or in connection with the sale of Atmel products. EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THE ATMEL TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALES LOCATED ON THE ATMEL WEBSITE, ATMEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER AND DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTY RELATING TO ITS PRODUCTS INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL ATMEL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS AND PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS DOCUMENT, EVEN IF ATMEL HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. Atmel makes no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this document and reserves the right to make changes to specifications and products descriptions at any time without notice. Atmel does not make any commitment to update the information contained herein. Unless specifically provided otherwise, Atmel products are not suitable for, and shall not be used in, automotive applications. Atmel products are not intended, authorized, or warranted for use as components in applications intended to support or sustain life. 46


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